Electromagn Biol Med. 2006;25(3):177-88.
Yurekli AI, Ozkan M, Kalkan T, Saybasili H, Tuncel H, Atukeren P, Gumustas K, Seker S.
Tubitak-Uekae, EMC TEMPEST Test Center, Gebze-Kocaeli, Turkey.
The ever increasing use of cellular phones and the increasing number of associated base stations are becoming a widespread source of nonionizing electromagnetic radiation. Some biological effects are likely to occur even at low-level EM fields. In this study, a gigahertz transverse electromagnetic (GTEM) cell was used as an exposure environment for plane wave conditions of far-field free space EM field propagation at the GSM base transceiver station (BTS) frequency of 945 MHz, and effects on oxidative stress in rats were investigated. When EM fields at a power density of 3.67 W/m2 (specific absorption rate = 11.3 mW/kg), which is well below current exposure limits, were applied, MDA (malondialdehyde) level was found to increase and GSH (reduced glutathione) concentration was found to decrease significantly (p < 0.0001). Additionally, there was a less significant (p = 0.0190) increase in SOD (superoxide dismutase) activity under EM exposure.
PMID: 16954120 [PubMed - in process]
This is another really interesting piece of the jigsaw and confirms the earlier Turkish studies (below). The oxidative stress could well be the signature of nitric oxide imbalance, since this disruption interacts with SOD and produces far more potent free radicals than NO alone. Further, there is evidence that NO inhibits serotonin, a precursor of melatonin:
Nitric oxide transforms serotonin into an inactive form and this affects neuromodulation.
Fossier P, Blanchard B, Ducrocq C, Leprince C, Tauc L, Baux G.
But the signatures of oxidative stress are clear.
J Dermatol. 2004 Nov;31(11):878-83.
Oxidative stress-mediated skin damage in an experimental mobile phone model can be prevented by melatonin.
Ayata A, Mollaoglu H, Yilmaz HR, Akturk O, Ozguner F, Altuntas I.
Mol Cell Biochem. 2006 Jan;282(1-2):83-8.
Protective effects of melatonin and caffeic acid phenethyl ester against retinal oxidative stress in long-term use of mobile phone: A comparative study.
Ozguner F, Bardak Y, Comlekci S.
Effects of electromagnetic radiation from a cellular telephone on the oxidant and antioxidant levels in rabbits.
Irmak MK, Fadillioglu E, Gulec M, Erdogan H, Yagmurca M, Akyol O
What else is fascinating is this:
Ginkgo biloba prevents mobile phone-induced oxidative stress in rat brain.
Why? Because ginkgo biloba is a nitric oxide scavenger. There may therefore be a clue in the use of Vit B12, Omega 3,6,9, ginkgo biloba and melatonin to alleviate EHS (and MCS: see Martin Pall's recent posting). If these are acting to reduce NO build-up, and the suspicion is that NOS may be being activated by EMFs to cause the oxidative stress, and all the EHS symptoms for which NO remains a common thread.
Interesting that Selenium is frequently recommended in the case of EHS. See this study as a possible link:
Selenium deficiency increases the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase in RAW 264.7 macrophages: role of nuclear factor-kappaB in up-regulation.
Prabhu KS, Zamamiri-Davis F, Stewart JB, Thompson JT, Sordillo LM, Reddy CC.
It's a big jigsaw, but bits of the picture are becoming clearer. (I won't bore you with more here but there are many more interesting and related interactions to this latest study, that explain things.)
From Mast Sanity/Mast Network
Mobile phone users 'stressed out'