Nuclear Weapons



Chirac für Atomwaffeneinsatz

Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists: U.S. nuclear forces, 2006

By Robert S. Norris and Hans M. Kristensen
January/February 2006 pp. 68-71 (vol. 62, no. 1)
© 2005 Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists

Fifteen years after the end of the Cold War, the United States continues to spend billions of dollars annually to maintain and upgrade its nuclear forces. It is deploying a larger and more accurate preemptive nuclear strike capability in the Asia-Pacific region, and shifting its doctrine toward targeting U.S. strategic nuclear forces against "weapons of mass destruction" complexes and command centers.

As of January 2006, the U.S. stockpile contains almost 10,000 nuclear warheads. This includes 5,735 active or operational warheads: 5,235 strategic and 500 nonstrategic warheads. Approximately 4,225 additional warheads are held in the reserve or inactive stockpiles, some of which will be dismantled. Under plans announced by the Energy Department in June 2004 (and possibly revised in spring 2005), some 4,365 warheads are scheduled to be retired for dismantlement by 2012 (see Nuclear Notebook, September/October 2004). This would leave approximately 5,945 warheads in the operational and reserve stockpiles in 2012, including the 1,700-2,200 "operationally deployed" strategic warheads specified in the 2002 Moscow Treaty or Strategic Offensive Reductions Treaty (SORT).

To understand the composition of the U.S. stockpile, it is helpful to examine the terms used to describe the different categories of warheads. Active warheads are maintained in a ready-for-use status, with tritium and other limited life components installed, and may be either deployed or stored. The active warhead inventory is broken down into deployed warheads, responsive force warheads, and spares. Deployed warheads consist of operationally deployed warheads (for example, warheads on fielded strategic forces), warheads associated with weapon systems in overhaul, and fielded nonstrategic weapons. Responsive force warheads consist of active warheads not on deployed systems. These are kept in secure storage but are available to be returned to the operationally deployed force. Depending on the particular weapon system, this task may take days, weeks, or months. Spare warheads are part of the active but not operational inventory, and support routine maintenance and operations. Inactive warheads do not have limited life components installed or maintained, and may not have the latest warhead modifications.

New war plans. The Defense Department is upgrading its nuclear strike plans to reflect new presidential guidance and a transition in war planning from the top-heavy Single Integrated Operational Plan of the Cold War to a family of smaller and more flexible strike plans designed to defeat today's adversaries. The new central strategic war plan is known as OPLAN (Operations Plan) 8044. Former chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Gen. Richard B. Meyers described some of the planning changes in April 2005 Senate testimony: "[U.S. Strategic Command] has revised our strategic deterrence and response plan that became effective in the fall of 2004. This revised, detailed plan provides more flexible options to assure allies, and dissuade, deter, and if necessary, defeat adversaries in a wider range of contingencies."

One member of the new family is CONPLAN 8022, a concept plan for the quick use of nuclear, conventional, or information warfare capabilities to destroy--preemptively, if necessary--"time-urgent targets" anywhere in the world. Defense Secretary Donald Rumsfeld issued an Alert Order in early 2004 that directed the military to put CONPLAN 8022 into effect. As a result, the Bush administration's preemption policy is now operational on long-range bombers, strategic submarines on deterrent patrol, and presumably intercontinental ballistic missiles (ICBMs).

ICBMs. In 2005, the Pentagon completed the retirement of the MX Peacekeeper ICBM, after almost 20 years of service. The missile's long and controversial history stretches back to the 1970s, when officials proposed many elaborate basing schemes to try and prevent a supposed "window of vulnerability" from increasing numbers of accurate Soviet ICBMs. By 1979 the program called for the deployment of 200 missiles, hidden among 4,600 shelters (one missile in each cluster of 23 shelters), in a kind of mobile shell-game spread over approximately 40,000 square miles of Utah and Nevada. In 1983, President Ronald Reagan canceled that basing scheme and cut the number of missiles to 100, to be placed in Minuteman missile silos, tacitly conceding that the vulnerability problem could not be solved or never existed in the first place. Two years later, Congress limited deployment to 50 missiles. The first 10 missiles, located at Warren Air Force Base (AFB), Wyoming, were declared operational on December 22, 1986, with the full force of 50 on alert two years later. The Pentagon phased out the MX over a three-year period beginning in October 2002; it deactivated the last missile on September 19, 2005. In the end, billions of dollars were expended to rectify an imaginary strategic vulnerability.

The 2001 Nuclear Posture Review (NPR) calls for MX silos to be retained, rather than destroyed as was required in the now-abandoned Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty (START) II. The United States will keep MX missiles for possible use as space-launch vehicles, as target vehicles, or for redeployment. The missiles' 550 W87 warheads will be temporarily stored, and a portion will eventually replace W62 warheads on Minuteman III ICBMs under the Safety Enhanced Reentry Vehicle (SERV) program beginning this year. All W62s are scheduled to be retired in 2009. A Minuteman missile can carry one or two SERVs with W87 warheads, but apparently not three. In total, we estimate that 200 W87 warheads will be used to complement the W78 warheads assigned to Minuteman IIIs, with the balance placed in the responsive force of reserve warheads. Full operational capability of the SERV is scheduled for autumn 2010.

The 500-strong Minuteman III force remains basically unchanged from last year. Under START I, the air force downloaded the 150 missiles located at Warren AFB to single-warhead configuration in 2001. With START II's ban on multiple independently targetable reentry vehicles (MIRVs) now a dead letter, U.S. officials revised earlier plans to download all Minuteman missiles to a single-warhead configuration. Although the air force plans to reduce the operational warhead loading on Minuteman IIIs to 500, it is considering keeping as many as 800 warheads for the Minuteman force.

Minuteman modernization continues under an ambitious $7 billion-$8 billion, six-part program intended to improve the missile's accuracy and reliability and extend its service life beyond 2020. The United States test-launched four Minuteman IIIs from Vandenberg AFB, California, between July 14 and September 14, 2005. Three tests flew a single unarmed reentry vehicle, while the fourth missile carried two vehicles. An August 25 test used a Minuteman III from the 564th Missile Squadron at Malmstrom AFB, Montana, with a single vehicle. The air force stated that the test aimed to "demonstrate the ability to integrate a safety enhanced reentry vehicle" for W87 warheads onto the Minuteman III weapons system. Military officials executed the September 14 launch through the 20th Air Force's airborne launch control system using a U.S. Navy E-6B Mercury (TACAMO) aircraft.

The air force issued a Mission Need Statement in 2002 for a new ICBM to be introduced in 2018. The air force has earmarked more than $10 million for 2006-2007 for studies to define the required capabilities and set milestones for missile development. Some defense strategists have suggested equipping a portion of the ICBM force with conventional warheads. There are rumors that the forthcoming Quadrennial Defense Review may recommend converting 50 of the 500 Minuteman missiles to conventional missions.

Submarines. The navy decommissioned the Trident I C4 missile, after 26 years of service, in late October 2005, when the Alabama off-loaded the last 24 operational C4 missiles. The entire force of submarine-launched ballistic missiles (SLBMs) is now comprised of Trident II D5 missiles. When missile conversion is completed in 2008, the United States will have 336 Trident II D5 SLBMs on 14 nuclear-powered ballistic missile submarines (SSBNs), which is the force level decided on in the 1994 NPR; the missiles will be armed with approximately 2,000 warheads. The navy has extended the service life of the subs from 30 to 44 years. The oldest sub is scheduled to retire in 2029, when a new SSBN class will be introduced.

The navy completed the first phase of downloading the warheads from all Trident II missiles in 2005 to keep pace with SORT goals. The navy has opted for a gradual decrease in the number of warheads on its SLBMs over several years, rather than a sudden drop just before the end of 2012, the treaty deadline. Under START, each Trident II D5 missile is counted as carrying eight warheads, though the actual number varies depending upon mission. We estimate that each missile now carries an average of six warheads. They will be further downloaded as 2012 approaches.

During the past few years, the navy has significantly changed the homeporting of SSBNs to meet new planning requirements. It transferred two SSBNs from the Atlantic to the Pacific Ocean in 2002 and another in 2003. On August 17, 2005, the Louisiana left Naval Submarine Base Kings Bay, Georgia, on patrol. Rather than roaming the Atlantic during its 58-day patrol, the sub sailed around Cape Horn and ended up at its new homeport, Naval Submarine Base Bangor, Washington. On September 27, 2005, the Maine left Kings Bay on a similar journey, bringing to nine the number of SSBNs in the Pacific. Five subs remain in the Atlantic.

The primary goal of the shift is to increase coverage of targets in China, according to navy officials. (Pacific-based SSBNs also target Russia and North Korea.) The buildup of the more capable Trident II D5s in the Pacific additionally "enhances system accuracy, payload, and hard-target capability, thus improving [U.S.] available responses to existing and emerging Pacific theater threats," Rear Adm. Charles B. Young, director of the navy's Strategic Systems Program, said in an August 2002 speech at the Strategic Weapons Facility Pacific.

The four oldest Ohio-class SSBNs have been removed from the nuclear mission and are being converted into cruise missile submarines (SSGN) at a cost of $4.1 billion. Electric Boat Corporation, a division of General Dynamics, is the main contractor and built the original submarines. Work on the Ohio and Michigan is being done at Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Washington, after which the subs will be homeported at Bangor. Work on the Florida and Georgia is being done at Norfolk Naval Shipyard, Virginia, after which they will be homeported at Kings Bay. We estimate that the Defense Department transferred the nearly 1,000 W76 warheads from these four older SSBNs to inactive/responsive status and will eventually send them to the Pantex Plant in Texas for dismantlement.

At least four important upgrades are under way involving the Trident II D5. The first is a life-extension program (LEP) for the W76 warhead that will significantly enhance the weapon's capability. Outfitting the W76/Mk-4 reentry vehicle with a new arming and fuzing subsystem (MC4700) will give the 100-kiloton W76 a ground-burst capability for the first time and will increase the types of targets that it can destroy. The modified W76 warhead, which may have its yield reduced by about 40 percent to 60 kilotons, according to a July report in Sante Fe's New Mexican newspaper, is designated the W76 Mod 1 (or W76-1), and the reentry vehicle is known as Mk-4A.

The navy is working on a second warhead upgrade to equip the reentry vehicles with Global Positioning Satellite (GPS) receivers for increased accuracy. In 2004, Congress refused to fund the Enhanced Effectiveness (E2) Reentry Body program, which would have provided this capability, because of a concern that equipping SLBM reentry vehicles with GPS accuracy could lead to mini-nukes on the submarines.

Using other funds, the navy supports programs to improve the missile's accuracy. One program aims to equip reentry vehicles with a three-axis flap system that steers the reentry vehicle during its descent toward its target, essentially creating a maneuverable reentry vehicle. In March 2005, the Tennessee launched a Trident II D5 missile equipped with an unarmed reentry vehicle fitted with the three-axis flap system and GPS. One navy admiral who participated in the test told us: "I had GPS signal all the way down and could steer it." The test was also significant because the D5's 2,200-kilometer (1,367-mile) trajectory was the shortest ever flown by a U.S. SLBM, according to the admiral, with the warhead impacting just 12-13 minutes after launch.

The third modernization program involves upgrading the current Mk-6 guidance system and extending its service life. The Mk-6LE (life extension) is scheduled to be operational in 2013 and would last through 2042. The fourth upgrade involves refurbishing the solid propulsion motors of the Trident II D5. Defense awarded a $71.5 million contract to Alliant Techsystems for production of new solid propulsion systems for all three stages of the D5 through 2007.

The navy continues to buy Trident II D5 missiles. It has bought 408 so far and requested an additional five missiles in 2005. Officials extended D5 production through 2013 and increased the total number to be procured from 453 to 561, at an additional cost of $12.2 billion. The total cost of the program is now $37 billion, or $66 million per missile. To make the D5 operational through 2042 (to the end of the extended service life of the Ohio-class SSBN), the navy will upgrade existing missiles to a new variant, the D5LE. In 2003, Congress budgeted $416 million to modernize the D5. At any given time, 336 Trident II D5s will arm the 14 U.S. SSBNs (including two sets for two SSBNs that will be in overhaul), 58 D5s will be allocated to Britain for their SSBNs, and the balance will be available for flight tests.

The navy appears to have dropped plans to equip its new submarine-launched intermediate-range ballistic missile (SLIRBM) with dual nuclear-conventional capability in favor of developing only conventional warheads for the weapon. Defense awarded a $9.2 million, 16-month contract to Lockheed Martin in July 2005 to demonstrate and validate solid rocket motor technologies for a two-stage SLIRBM design. The program envisions fitting multiple SLIRBMs inside each missile tube on SSGNs, adding a second conventional strike weapon to the boats' Tomahawk sea-launched cruise missiles. The SLIRBM is intended to precisely deliver a conventional payload at ranges in excess of 1,770 kilometers (1,099 miles) within 10-15 minutes of launch.

After a more than 11-year hiatus, the navy has resumed SLBM flight-testing in the Pacific. In November 2004, the Nevada launched two Trident II D5s down the Pacific Missile Range. In March 2005, the Tennessee test-fired a missile in the Atlantic, and in October the Royal Navy's Vanguard test-fired a D5 missile, also in the Atlantic. In anticipation of flight-testing in both oceans, the navy, with the help of the Johns Hopkins Applied Physics Laboratory, converted two 8-foot by 40-foot containers into vans for data processing and analysis during test-launches.

Bombers and bomber weapons. The United States has two types of long-range bombers for nuclear missions: the B-2A Spirit and the B-52H Stratofortress. The B-52Hs are based at Barksdale AFB, Louisiana, and at Minot AFB, North Dakota; the B-2As are based at Whiteman AFB, Missouri.

The B-52s can deliver cruise missiles, gravity bombs, or a combination of both; B-2s carry only bombs. Both have conventional missions as well.

Neither bomber is maintained on day-to-day alert as during the Cold War, yet the alert level has increased with the recent tasking of bomber wings in Global Strike missions. In October 2004, for example, the air force launched 13 B-52s near-simultaneously from Barksdale AFB in a minimum--interval takeoff, with each bomber taking off within a minute or less of one another. The commander of the 8th Air Force at Barksdale AFB told the Times of Shreveport in October 2005 that the 8th Air Force is now "essentially on alert . . . to plan and execute global strikes" on behalf of Strategic Command.

A five-year modernization effort completed in 2003 enables the B-2 to carry a mix of B61 and B83 nuclear bombs as well as various conventional weapons. B-2s are already capable of making some targeting changes en route, but the air force is replacing the onboard UHF and VHF radios, and satellite communications systems, with a new system that will allow crews to receive beyond-line-of-sight (BLOS) voice and data communications, and review full mission plans en route to their targets. An extremely high frequency (EHF) satellite communication will be added to ensure the bombers have secure BLOS communications in their nuclear mission. The air force is also equipping all B-2s with a new external coating known as alternate high-frequency material, which will increase the bomber's stealthiness and ease its maintenance. The program will be completed by 2011.

The air force began installing the Avionics Midlife Improvement (AMI) on the B-52H in 2005, to improve the aircraft's navigation and nuclear weapons delivery. Installation on all bombers will be completed by September 2008. Technicians will also replace the bomber's existing satellite communication system with an EHF radio to improve connectivity in nuclear-strike scenarios.

The weapons deployed on U.S. strategic bombers have a variety of capabilities. B61-7 bombs have multiple yield options, sometimes referred to as "dial-a-yield," ranging from 10 to 350 kilotons. The bomb, which is almost 12 feet long and weighs approximately 760 pounds, has five fuzing options: free-fall airburst, parachute-retarded airburst, free-fall contact burst, parachute--retarded contact burst, and parachute--retarded lay down delayed-surface burst (with 31-second and 81-second delays available). The B61-11 "bunker buster" is a B61-7 with a one-piece hardened--steel center case and a new nosepiece and rear subassembly, which provide for ground penetration and add approximately 450 pounds of weight. The 400-kiloton weapon is also equipped with a special ground-impact time-delay feature to allow it to penetrate 3-6 meters (10-20 feet) underground before detonation. The Pentagon and Los Alamos National Laboratory developed the Mod 11 to replace the 9-megaton B53 bomb, whose purpose was to hold selected deeply buried targets at risk.

The B83 is a high-yield strategic bomb with variable yield options up to 1.2 megatons. It is designed for high-speed external carriage and low-altitude delivery against hard targets. The weapon is built for relatively hard impacts on irregular, reinforced concrete surfaces, such as ICBM silos. The bomb weighs 2,400 pounds and has four sections behind its hollow shock-absorbing nose. The first compartment houses the warhead; the mid-case contains the firing set and fuzing controls; the aft-case contains the arming system and thermal batteries; and the last compartment holds the parachute system, which contains a 46-foot Kevlar-nylon ribbon parachute that is held by 60 Kevlar suspension lines and deployed by three 4-foot diameter pilot chutes. The 180-pound parachute system can reduce the bomb's velocity from about 700 miles per hour to 44 miles per hour within a few seconds.

The advanced cruise missile (ACM) and air-launched cruise missile (ALCM) carried on the B-52H are undergoing service life-extension programs to prolong their lifetimes through 2030. The ACM's forward-swept wings and tailplanes, flush air-intake, and flat, shielded jet exhaust make it difficult for radar to observe the missile. The ACM has a range of 3,000 kilometers (1,864 miles) and for guidance uses an inertial navigation system, together with a terrain contour matching (TERCOM) system to provide accuracies of 100-300 feet circular error probable. TERCOM uses a downward-pointing radar altimeter to determine the missile's altitude as it flies toward a target and compares the ground elevation profiles with maps stored in memory to determine if it is on course. The ALCM has the same navigation and guidance system but has a slightly shorter range of approximately 2,400 kilometers (1,491 miles). Both missiles are equipped with a W80-1 warhead, which has variable yield options up to 150 kilotons. The air force moved all remaining reserve ALCMs at Fairchild AFB, Washington, to Barksdale AFB in November 2005.

The air force is studying options for a next-generation nuclear cruise missile. One possibility is a joint enhanced cruise missile with a nuclear payload and longer range to support Global Strike missions against "targets deep within future high-threat anti-access environments," according to air force documents. The new missile could be delivered by bombers or from various ground or sea platforms.

Nuclear Surety Inspections. Air Combat Command's inspector general periodically conducts Nuclear Surety Inspections (NSI) to assess if rules, regulations, and procedures are being maintained to the highest standards. The inspections evaluate many areas, including weapon loading and mating procedures; storage, maintenance, and security practices; accident ("Broken Arrow") response; exercises to recapture and recover a nuclear weapon; processing and relaying emergency action messages; and permissive action link/use control operations that ensure that authorization orders are authentic.

Inspectors conducted an NSI of the 5th Bomb Wing at Minot AFB from December 12 to 19, 2004 and rated the base satisfactory. An NSI conducted from July 9 to 16, 2005 of the 2nd Bomb Wing at Barksdale AFB was rated unsatisfactory. Inspectors visited Whiteman AFB in December 2003 for an NSI, and a follow-up was expected in mid-2005. >From February 18 to 24, 2004, inspectors conducted an NSI of the 896th Munitions Squadron (MUNS) at Nellis AFB, Nevada. The 896th MUNS receives, ships, stores, and maintains a huge stockpile of nuclear weapons. The Weapon Storage Area consists of 790 acres, crisscrossed by 36 miles of roadway, and houses 75 specialized storage igloos. The inspectors graded 18 areas, and the MUNS received 17 excellent or satisfactory ratings and one outstanding.

Nonstrategic nuclear weapons. The United States retains approximately 500 nonstrategic operational nuclear weapons and keeps another 790 in reserve. These include the B61-3,-4, and-10 gravity bombs and the W80-0 warhead for the nuclear Tomahawk land-attack cruise missile (TLAM/N). The B61-10 is no longer in the active stockpile, according to Energy documents. The 2001 NPR did not address nonstrategic nuclear weapons.

The United States deploys B61 nonstrategic nuclear bombs at eight bases in six European countries for delivery by various U.S. and NATO aircraft. Additional tactical bombs are in reserve status stored at Kirtland AFB, New Mexico, and Nellis AFB. The air force deploys approximately 50 bombs with the 4th Fighter Wing at Seymour Johnson AFB, North Carolina. The 27th Fighter Wing at Cannon AFB, New Mexico, no longer has a nuclear mission, and the base is expected to be phased out under the 2005 Base Realignment and Closure process.

U.S. delivery aircraft include the F-16C/D Fighting Falcon and F-15E Strike Eagle. NATO aircraft assigned nuclear missions include U.S.-supplied F-16s and German and Italian Tornado bombers. Under current air force planning, a portion of the F-35 Joint Strike Fighter (JSF) force will have nuclear capability starting in 2012. The JSF program completed an initial nuclear certification requirements plan in 2004, and more detailed procedures to make it nuclear capable began in 2005.

Selected Los Angeles-class, improved Los Angeles-class, and some Virginia-class attack submarines can deploy with TLAM/Ns. The navy plans to refurbish the missiles, and Energy their W80-0 warheads, to extend their service life to around 2040. An estimated 320 TLAM/Ns are currently stored at the Strategic Weapons Facilities at Bangor, Washington, and King's Bay, Georgia, alongside strategic weapons for the SSBNs.

While most U.S. nuclear-powered attack submarines (SSNs) were credited with some nuclear capability during the Cold War, today most SSNs do not have nuclear missions. In the Pacific Fleet, for example, less than half of the attack submarines regularly undergo nuclear certification. But if the order were given, Tomahawks could be redeployed in 30 days. We estimate that no more than 12 out of around 50 SSNs have nuclear capability. The navy has test-launched unarmed Tomahawks 92 times since 1978. Two of these were conducted in 2005, one from the Greenville and another from the Minneapolis-St. Paul.

Nuclear warheads. To ensure the reliability of nuclear weapons beyond their original design lives, most of the warheads in the "enduring" stockpile are scheduled to undergo life-extension programs over the next decade. The first of these programs began in 1999 and was for the W87; it was completed in 2001.

The B61-7/-11, W76, W78, W80, B83, and W88 warheads will also undergo life-extension programs. Some life-extension programs are substantial enough to change a warhead's modification designation. Accordingly, the W76 will become the W76-1, and the W80-0 and W80-1 will become the W80-2 and W80-3, respectively. The first production units of the W80-2 and B61-7/-11 are scheduled for delivery later this year, the W76-1 in 2007-2008, and the W80-3 around 2008. The B61-7/-11 LEP involves refurbishing the secondary.

Strong congressional opposition to the Robust Nuclear Earth Penetrator (RNEP) warhead program induced Energy to withdraw its 2006 funding request for the program, but hardened--case penetration tests applicable to RNEP will likely continue with Defense funding at Sandia National Laboratories.

After spending almost $2 billion during more than a decade, Energy is still "reestablishing" small-scale plutonium pit production at Los Alamos. Lab scientists produced two certifiable W88 pits in 2003, four more in 2004, and six in 2005. Energy plans to test these pits in support of achieving W88 pit certification (for quantity production and stockpiling in the "war reserve") in 2007. Los Alamos aims to manufacture 10 W88 pits per year from 2008 to 2014. As part of its "pit campaign," Energy also hopes to "establish manufacturing process capability for all pit types" by 2009 and to "manufacture initial pit EDUs [engineering demonstration units] for Reliable Replacement [Warhead] pits" by 2012, according to its 2006 budget request.

In total, Los Alamos could be making plutonium pits for as many as 30-40 new warheads per year after 2010, according to an October 2005 Albuquerque Journal interview with Linton Brooks, the administrator of the National Nuclear Security Administration. Energy's plans for constructing a larger Modern Pit Facility at a new site are on hold.

Nuclear Notebook is prepared by Robert S. Norris of the Natural Resources Defense Council (NRDC) and Hans M. Kristensen of the Federation of American Scientists. Direct inquiries to NRDC, 1200 New York Avenue, N.W., Suite 400, Washington, D.C., 20005; 202-289-6868.

January/February 2006 pp. 68-71 (vol. 62, no. 1) © 2005 Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists

The U.S. arsenal

Type/Designation No. Year deployed Warheads x yield (kilotons) Active/Spares
LGM-30G Minuteman III
Mk-12 150 1970 1 W62 x 170 150
Mk-12 50 1970 3 W62 x 170 (MIRV) 150/30
Mk-12A 300 1979 2-3 W78 x 335 (MIRV) 750/35
Total 500 1,050/65
UGM-133A Trident II D5*
Mk-4 n/a 1992 6 W76 x 100 (MIRV) 1,632/80
Mk-5 n/a 1990 6 W88 x 455 (MIRV) 384/20
Total 336 2,016/100
B-52H Stratofortress 94/56** 1961 ALCM/W80-1 x 5-150
ACM/W80-1 x 5-150
B-2A Spirit 21/16 1994 B61-7, -11, B83-1 555
Total 115/72 1,955/50***
Nonstrategic forces
Tomahawk SLCM 325 1984 1 W80-0 x 5-150 100
B61-3, -4 bombs n/a 1979 0.3-170 400
Total 325 500
Grand total ~5,521/215
ACM: advanced cruise missile; ALCM: air-launched cruise missile; ICBM: intercontinental ballistic missile; MIRV: multiple independently targetable reentry vehicle; SLCM: sea-launched cruise missile; SLBM: submarine-launched ballistic missile.

* Conversion of the Henry Jackson and the Alabama to Trident II D5 SLBMs will be completed in 2007 and 2008, respectively, bringing to 14 the number of SSBNs capable of carrying D5s.
** The first figure is the aircraft inventory, including those used for training, testing, and backup. The second figure is the primary mission aircraft inventory, the number of operational aircraft assigned for nuclear and/or conventional missions.
*** The large pool of bombs and cruise missiles allows for multiple loading possibilities, depending upon the mission.

U.S. stockpile

Type Active Inactive/
Responsive Total
W62* 330 250 580
W78** 785 20 805
W76** 1,712 1,318 3,030
W88 404 0 404
W80-1** 1,450 361 1,811
B61-7 215 224 439
B61-11 20 21 41
B83-1/-0 320 306 626
W80-0 100 194 294
B61-3** 200 186 386
B61-4** 200 204 404
B61-10 0 206 206
W84* 0 383 383
W87 0 553 553
Total 5,736 4,226 9,962
*Warhead type to be fully dismantled.
**Warhead type to be partially dismantled.

From FoE Sydney - Nuclear Campaign


Troubled world full of missiles

Cameron Miller woefully failed to deliver the goods on the Peacekeeper missile in his Oct. 14 column.

This system was tested four times at Vandenberg AFB from July through September in order to collect data for an upgraded system, a refurbished Minuteman III that will carry one 600-pound nuclear weapon. The refurbished Minuteman IIIs will have improved guidance system reliability, and will be contained in the existing 500 silos placed throughout the Midwest.

The upgraded Minuteman III is expected to remain in service until 2020, at which point it will be replaced by a new missile design. The range is expected to be about 10,000 kilometers.

Our friend Russia has also worked to improved ICBM's precision and lethality. On Sept. 27 of this year, Russia launched the first test flight of the new Bulava ballistic missile, which it claims is capable of evading our ground-based midcourse missile defense and is equipped with hypersonic maneuverable warheads.

Other nations, too, continue to test missiles as we increasingly become a troubled world riddled with missile weapons. We may be at a dangerous point in our civilization. Don't worry, though. Relax, grab a bag of popcorn, and pop the movie “The Day After” in your video/DVD player. Warning: You may not be able to sleep.

Sheila Baker
San Luis Obispo



Nuclear disarmament - A treaty to prevent the weaponisation of space

Get Disarmament Moving! Jump-Start Disarmament!

The UN General Assembly is currently discussing how to get real progress on nuclear disarmament. Many countries are moving to prevent any one countrys ability to block all negotiations, and letting the world's desire to abolish nuclear weapons move forward. This discussion is taking the shape of a resolution currently being put forward in the First Committee of the UN General Assembly. (Draft text of the resolution at the end of this email)

The resolution, announced on October 6th, will establish four ad-hoc committees under the General Assembly and provide an opportunity for governments to address nuclear disarmament, preventing an arms race in outer space, a treaty that would ban the production of fissile material for nuclear weapons production, and negative security assurances.

Please write, phone, and fax your heads of states, foreign ministers, and UN missions in NYC and ask them to support the resolution that will be voted on in the First Committee at the end of October and forwarded to the General Assembly.

A letter from Abolition-2000 to all UN missions, and from Australian NGOs to Australian foreign minister Alexander Downer are below, followed by draft text of the resolution itself.

For your governmentâs contact information, visit:

Some fax numbers that might be useful (Foreign ministries and UN missions) are:

Australia - foreign minister Alexander Downer - 61-2-6273-4112 or 61-2-8370-8166 Australia - UN Mission 1-212-351-6610 New Zealand Foreign Ministry - 64-4-472-9596 UN Mission 1-212-758-0827 Japan UN Mission 1-212-751-1966 Germany - Foreign Ministry - 49-30-1888-17-3402 UN Mission -1-212-940-0402 Norway - foreign ministry - 47-2224-9580 UN mission 1-212-688-0554 South Africa Foreign Ministry - 27-12-351-0253 UN Mission 1-212-692-2498 United States - President Bush 202-456-2461 UN Mission 1-212-415-4443 Russia - foreign ministry - (095)244- 4112 President Putin7-095-205-4219 Russia- UNmission 1-212-628-0252 UK- Tony Blair - 44-207-925-0918 UN Mission 1-212-745-9316 China (UN mission) 1-212-634-7626 France Foreign Ministry - 011-33-147-42-2465 UN Mission 1-212-421-6889 India Foreign Ministry - 011-91-11-301-6857 UNmission 490-9656 Pakistan (UN mission) 744-7348 Israel Foreign Ministry 011-972-266-4838 UN mission 1-212-499-5515 Iran UN mission 867-7086

They need to hear from us to help them stick to their intentions to make this 60th anniversary year of living with the bomb, the year the world got serious about eliminating the nuclear scourge.

They will be under tremendous pressure from the US and its allies--so please act now to let your government know that the other superpower--the people of the world--want governments to do the right thing and ban the bomb.

To build support for nuclear disarmament in your own community, urge your mayor, parliamentarians or congress members to endorse the Joint Mayors and Parliamentariansâ Statement on Nuclear Disarmament - -that will be presented at the United Nations on UN Day, October 24th to support the draft UN resolution.

For more information, visit

This letter from Australian NGOs was faxed yesterday to foreign minister Downer. It is followed by a letter from Abolition2000 to all UN missions.


Alexander Downer, Foreign Minister,
6273-4112, 08-8237-7950 6261-2151 Australian UN Mission 1-212-351-6610 Foreign Minister, Norway 47-2224-9580 Norway UN Mission 1-212-688-0554 Foreign Minister South Africa 27-12-351-0253 RSA UN Mission 1-212-692-2498 UN Mission Chile, 1-212-832-8714 UN Mission Romania 1-212-682-9746 UN Mission Indonesia 1-212-972-9780 UN Mission UK 1-212-745-9316

RE: UNGA FIRST COMMITTEE PROPOSAL 'Initiating Work on Priority Disarmament and Non-Proliferation Issues'

Dear Foreign Minister Downer, and representatives of the Seven Nation Initiative,

We are writing to urgently request Australia's and the Seven Nation Initiatives support for the proposal to be submitted by Canada, Mexico and Malaysia on Oct 6 in UNGA First Committee, "Initiating work on priority disarmament and non-proliferation issues" intended to break the paralysing deadlock in nuclear disarmament and nonproliferation negotiations that has prevailed over the past few years.

That resolution, would address the following vital issues: - Nuclear disarmament - A treaty to prevent the weaponisation of space - The Fissile Material Cut-off Treaty - Negative security assurances.

As you will be well aware, the recent NPT Review ended with no final agreement because a very small group of nations, and often only one nation, held up consensus.

You will also be well aware that nuclear disarmament and nonproliferation did not even figure on the agenda of the M+5 Summit in spite of pleas by Secretary - General Kofi Annan for progress to be made on it, in large part because of the actions of US ambassador to the UN John Boltons actions. Kofi Annans reaction to its exclusion from the M+5 agenda was that this was 'inexcusable'.

The Seven - Nation initiative was welcomed by Kofi Annan as a ray of hope against that dark background. It would therefore be highly appropriate and helpful for it to lend its support to other initiatives such as the Canada/Mexico/Malaysia one, designed to cut through the current nuclear disarmament deadlock. A process that does not allow this deadlock to happen but that accurately reflects the will of the overwhelming majority of peoples and governments is essential. A small number of governments - often only one government - that thwarts the overwhelming wish of the world as a whole to move toward the elimination of nuclear weapons is intolerable.

I trust and hope that both specific members of the Seven Nation initiative and the Initiative as a whole may find it possible to give their full support to the proposal emanating from Canada, Mexico, and Malaysia.

I draw your attention also to the letter on the same subject that UN Missions will have received from Abolition2000, with which we would wish to be fully identified.

John Hallam Nuclear Weapons Campaigner, Friends of the Earth Australia Tilman Ruff, Medical Association for the Prevention of War (MAPW) Jo Vallentine, People for Nuclear Disarmament W.A., Cameron Schraner, People for Nuclear Disarmament NSW

October 7, 2005

Dear Ambassador,

We are writing to you as representative members of the Abolition 2000 Global Network to Eliminate Nuclear Weapons - a network of over 2,000 organizations and municipalities in more than 90 countries, working for a treaty to eliminate nuclear weapons. As you well know, the 2005 Non-Proliferation Treaty Review Conference ended with no final document and no agreement on how to implement the hard won promises made by nuclear weapon states in 1995 and 2000, including the unequivocal undertaking for the total elimination of nuclear weapons. Nor were the nations, bound by rules of consensus, able to address the increasing danger of nuclear proliferation, since only one or two countries were able to block any meaningful commitments for further measures to secure nuclear materials and deal with other issues of nuclear proliferation. Additionally, the Conference on Disarmament ended its ninth consecutive year without agreement on a program of work - another demonstrable failure of the current multilateral disarmament machinery caused by a lack of political will on the part of the few.

Once again, at the Millennium +5 Summit, leaders of governments were unable to deal with the critical issues of nuclear disarmament and non-proliferation. Every single reference to those matters was removed from the final document by a group of governments powerfully led by a few, thwarting the democratic will of the majority of the world’s people to make our world more secure by eliminating the nuclear scourge.

For these reasons, we urge your support for a resolution that is being put forward in the First Committee of the General Assembly to move these critical issues forward. This resolution, announced on October 6, will establish four ad-hoc committees under the General Assembly - a truly multilateral body, not bound by consensus. These committees, operating in Geneva, would begin work on the following issues:

- Negative security assurances. - Prevention of an Arms Race in Outer Space - Fissile Material Cut-off Treaty - Nuclear disarmament

The failure of the CD to act on these issues is largely attributed to the misinterpreted consensus rule of procedure, and the stubborn blockage by one member state. This resolution is not attempting to modify the mandate of the CD, nor is it opening a Pandora’s box of reform issues. Instead, it will provide ALL member states of the UN with an opportunity to contribute substantively to these important issues, affording an opportunity to move forward with discussions and deliberations that can set the legal, technical and political framework for substantive action on these items by the CD once it agrees to do so. However, if the CD fails to agree to a program of work, discussions will not be forced to end. This resolution provides an opportunity for negotiations to begin, and for those who deliberately boycott or sabotage those negotiations to pay a political price - and no longer be able to hide behind the consensus rules of the CD. On issues as critical as the collective security of our planet we cannot allow any chance of progress to be blocked by the obstinate refusal of a handful of states to the detriment of the great majority of nations.

We urge you to demonstrate your concern for the preservation of global security and support for the will of the world’s majority by supporting this resolution in the First Committee.


Abolition Global Council Monika Szymurska Abolition 2000 Coordinator

215 Lexington Avenue, Suite 1001 New York, NY 10016

e-mail: phone: (212) 726-9161 fax: (212) 726-9160

NON-PAPER Draft Elements of an UNGA60 First Committee Resolution "Initiating work on priority disarmament and non-proliferation issues"

The General Assembly,

1. Recognizing the importance of resuming substantive work on priority disarmament and non-proliferation issues,

2. Concerned with the protracted impasse in the Conference on Disarmament which has prevented it to date from adopting a Programme of Work,

3. Mindful of the need to ensure complementarity and avoid duplication between the work of the General Assembly and the Conference on Disarmament,

1. Decides, pending agreement on a Conference of Disarmament Programme of Work, to establish open-ended Ad Hoc Committees on the four priority issues as enumerated in paragraphs a-d below.

a) The first Ad Hoc Committee shall negotiate, with a view to
reaching agreement on effective international arrangements to assure non-nuclear-weapon States against the use or threat of use of nuclear weapons. These arrangements could take the form of an internationally binding instrument.

b) The second Ad Hoc Committee shall deal with nuclear disarmament. The Ad Hoc Committee shall exchange information and views on practical steps for progressive and systematic efforts to attain this objective and, in doing so, shall examine approaches towards potential future work of a multilateral character. In discharging its functions, the Ad Hoc Committee will take into account current efforts and existing proposals and views, as well as proposals that may emerge from the study and discussion.

c) The third Ad Hoc Committee shall negotiate, on the basis of the report of the CD's Special Coordinator (CD/1299) and the mandate contained therein, a non-discriminatory, multilateral and internationally and effectively verifiable treaty banning the production of fissile material for nuclear weapons or other nuclear explosive devices.

d) The fourth Ad Hoc Committee shall deal with the prevention of an arms race in outer space. The Ad Hoc Committee shall identify and examine, without limitation, any specific topics or proposals, which could include confidence-building or transparency measures, general principles, treaty commitments and the elaboration of a regime capable of preventing an arms race in outer space, including the possibility of negotiating relevant international legal instruments. In doing so, the Ad Hoc Committee shall take appropriate account of the need to contribute actively to the objective of the peaceful use of outer space and the prevention of an arms race there, while also promoting international stability and respecting the principle of undiminished security for all.

2. Decides that upon adoption of a Programme of Work in the Conference of Disarmament, the work of the relevant Ad Hoc Committees will cease and the results obtained shall be transmitted to the President of the Conference on Disarmament.

3. Decides to appoint _________ as the Chair of the first Ad Hoc Committee; ________as the Chair of the second Ad Hoc Committee; _________as the Chair of the third Ad Hoc Committee and ___________ as the chair of the fourth Ad Hoc Committee. Each Chair will report to the 61st session of the General Assembly.

4. Decides that the work of the Ad Hoc Committees will take place in Geneva and convene for up to six one-week meetings of five sessions each.

5. Decides that, in 2006, the Ad Hoc Committee under 1 a) shall meet as follows: 23 January -27 January; 20 February - 24 February; 20 March - 24 March; 29 May - 2 June; 26 June - 30 June; and 21 August - 25 August.

6. Decides that, in 2006, the Ad Hoc Committee under 1 b) shall meet as follows: 30 January - 3 February; 27 February - 3 March; 21 March - 31 March; 5 June -9 June; 31 July - 4 August; 28 August - 1 September.

7. Decides that, in 2006, the Ad Hoc Committee under 1 c) shall meet as follows: 6 February - 10 February; 6 March - 10 March; 15 May - 19 May; 12 June - 16 June; 7 August - 11 August; 4 September - 8 September.

8. Decides that, in 2006, the Ad hoc Committee under 1 d) shall meet as follows: 13 February - 17 February; 13 March - 17 March; 22 May -26 May; 19 June - 23 June; 14 August - 18 August; 11 September - 15 September.

9. Decides that the above schedule could be subject to modification pursuant to agreement by the Chairmen concerned

10. Requests the Secretary-General to provide within existing resources the necessary support to convene the work of the four aforementioned Ad Hoc Committees.


From FoE Sydney - Nuclear Campaign


US-Militärpolitik: größte Bedrohung der Menschheit

Nukleareinsatzdoktrin der USA vor der Verabschiedung - Einsatzoptionen von Atomwaffen beliebig erweitert - Perfide Politik der "Zweideutigkeit" - Parteien im BT-Wahlkampf müssen Position beziehen.


Noch nie war die Welt so gefährdet wie heute

Warum die Welt auch nach dem Ende des Kalten Krieges nicht sicherer geworden ist, erklärt Xanthia Hall von der Organisation "Internationale Ärzte für die Verhütung des Atomkrieges".


Join 44 Nobels, 288 NGOs, Europarliament, in Nuke Weapons Appeal

You are urged to sign the appeal below. Please Join this Appeal to take Nuclear Weapons off Hairtrigger Alert if you have not already done so.

To sign please email: If you have already endorsed it please delete (you may wish to check that you are correctly shown)

Appeal by 44 Nobel Prizewinners including Dalai Lama, Desmond Tutu, Joseph Rotblat and Jose Ramos-Horta, 288 Parliamentarians and NGOs, endorsed by the European Parliament and the Australian Senate on March 10 2005, to lower the operating status of nuclear weapons systems.

Contains: --Statement of Endorsement --Model for a draft resolution for UN General Assembly First Committee --List of supporting organisations, and individuals including 44 nobels , and 237 NGOs and Parliamentarians.

Appeal by 44 Nobel Prizewinners, 288 Parliamentarians and NGOs, endorsed by the European Parliament and the Australian Senate on March 10 2005, to lower the operating status of nuclear weapons systems.

Contains: --Statement of Endorsement --Model for a draft resolution for UN General Assembly First Committee --List of supporting organisations, and individuals including 44 nobels , and 288 NGOs and Parliamentarians.


The Distinguished individuals and organisations below, make the following appeal concerning nuclear weapons, and the danger posed by the maintenance of thousands of nuclear warheads and delivery systems on launch-on-warning status.

We call on the governments of the United States, Russia, China, France, and the UK, India, Pakistan, Israel, and North Korea, to support and implement steps to lower the operational status of nuclear weapon systems in order to reduce the risk of nuclear catastrophe and as part of their obligations, affirmed by the International Court of Justice, to achieve the elimination of nuclear weapons under strict and effective international control.

We note that:

1) To this day, thousands of nuclear weapons in the US and Russia are on Launch-on-warning status, and that the megatonnage involved remains more than enough to destroy civilisation and perhaps the human race.

2) That the Indian subcontinent is increasingly on a 'hairtrigger' status.

3) That there have been numerous incidents in which a nuclear exchange involving thousands of warheads could have taken place, and in which the fate of the earth has depended on the correct judgement of a single individual.

4) That the US, Russia, China, France, and the UK have failed so far to make further progress to achieve the total and unequivocal elimination of their nuclear arsenals, as called for under international law.

5) That, in addition to the failure of the 'official' nuclear weapons powers to fulfil their treaty obligations, India, Pakistan, Israel, and North Korea also posses nuclear weapons, and that the risk of their use is very real.

6) That a number of calls have been made by the UN General Assembly and by the European Parliament to lower the operational status of nuclear weapons.

Accordingly we call on the governments of the United States, Russia, China, France and the UK, India, Pakistan, Israel, and North Korea, to:

a) Take immediate steps to lower the operational status of nuclear weapons, and to revise nuclear doctrines, policies and postures to reflect such lowered operational status.

b) To implement in good faith their obligations under international law , to accomplish the total and unequivocal elimination of their nuclear arsenals.

c) To implement the steps toward nuclear disarmament outlined in the '13 steps' of the final declaration of the Year 2000 NPT Review Conference.

d) We call on non- nuclear nations to press for nuclear disarmament in every available international forum especially including the United Nations General Assembly First Committee and the Conference on Disarmament in Geneva.

e) We call on legislators worldwide to pass resolutions in national and other parliaments pressing for the lowering of the operational status of nuclear weapons and for nuclear disarmament as mandated by international law.

We draw the attention of legislators and diplomats to the two texts below:

i) A model for a resolution in the UN General Assembly calling for the lowering of the operational status of nuclear weapons (Note that in the process of getting it through the GA First Committee it may experience some alterations in text)

ii) Motion passed by the Australian Senate congratulating Colonel Stanislav Petrov on preventing nuclear war during the Serpukhov 15 incident of Sept 26 1983, and calling for the lowering of the operational status of nuclear weapons.

You are invited to endorse the statement above calling for the lowering of the operational status of nuclear weapons systems, and to give your support to measures such as the texts below.

i) Model for a resolution in the UN General Assembly Calling for the lowering of the operational status of nuclear weapons

Operational status of nuclear weapons
The General Assembly

Convinced that the possible use of nuclear weapons poses the most serious threat to humanity and to the survival of civilisation,

Convinced also that the maintenance of nuclear weapons systems at a high level of readiness-to-use increases the risks of unintentional or accidental use of such weapons which would have catastrophic consequences,

Noting that a high level of nuclear weapons readiness-to-use has contributed to a number of circumstances when nuclear weapons have become very close to being used,

Welcoming steps taken by States possessing nuclear weapons to reduce nuclear risks and prevent nuclear war,

Welcoming particularly the agreement by Russia and the United States of America on the Establishment of the Joint Centre for the Exchange of Data from Early Warning Systems and Notification of Missile Launches, but noting that the agreement has not yet been implemented,

Considering that, until nuclear weapons are eliminated, it is imperative that further steps be taken to prevent the accidental, unauthorised or unintentional use of nuclear weapons,

Expressing its deep concern that thousands of strategic warheads remain on Launch-On-Warning status,

Expressing its concern also about emerging approaches to the broader role of nuclear weapons as part of security strategies, including rationalisations for the use, and the possible development, of new types of nuclear weapons,

Recalling the program of action agreed at the 2000 Non-Proliferation Treaty Review Conference which called for concrete agreed measures to further reduce the operational status of nuclear weapons systems

Recalling resolutions [specify resolution numbers] on the floor of this assembly have called for reductions in the operational status of nuclear weapons,

Mindful that concrete steps to reduce the operational status of nuclear weapons systems will help reduce tensions, build confidence and support negotiations leading to the elimination of nuclear weapons,

1. Calls for a review of nuclear doctrines emphasising concrete steps to reduce the operational status of nuclear weapons,

2. Encourages States to immediately implement unilateral steps including, inter alia, the rescinding of launch-on-warning policies, and to urgently conclude negotiated steps, pending agreements for the complete elimination of nuclear weapons,

3. Calls on all States possessing nuclear weapons to undertake not to increase the number or types of weapons deployed and not to develop new types of weapons or rationalisations for their use,

4. Calls for further confidence-building and transparency measures to reduce the threats posed by nuclear weapons,

5. Requests States possessing nuclear weapons to report to the 60th session on steps they have taken to implement this resolution

6. Decides to include in the provisional agenda of its 60th session the item entitled "Operational status of nuclear weapons."

Sponsoring Organisations:

From: John Hallam Nuclear Weapons Campaigner Friends of the Earth Australia,
61-2-9567-7533, fax 61-2-9567-7166
1 Henry Street Turella NSW Aust 2205

Doug Mattern, Association of World Citizens,
55 New Montgomery Street, Suite 224, San Francisco, CA 94105.
1- 415 541 9610.

Supported by the Organisations and distinguished individuals below:

44 Nobel Prizewinners who have signed the appeal to lower the operating status of nuclear weapons:

Nobel Laureates HH The Dalai Lama, (Peace) Bishop Carlos Filipe Ximenes Belo, (Bishop of Loriu, Peace 1996) Mairead Corrigan Maguire,(Peace 1976) Jose Ramos Horta, (Peace 1996) Dr Joseph Rotblat, (Peace 1995) Oscar Arias Sanchez,(Peace 1987) Archbishop Desmond Tutu, (Peace 1984) Betty Williams, (Peace 1976)

Dr Alexei Abrikosov,(Physics 2003) Dr Kenneth Arrow, (Economics 1972) Dr Baruj Benacerraf ,(Medicine 1980) Dr Guenter Blobel, (Medicine 1999) Dr Johan Diesenhofer,(Chemistry 1988) Dr Peter C. Doherty, (Medicine 1996) Dr R.R. Ernst, (Chemistry 1991) Dr John B. Fenn, (Chemistry 2002) Dr Edmond H. Fischer , (Medicine 1992) Dr Jerome I. Friedman, (Physics 1990) Dr Val L. Fitch,(Physics 1980) Dr Robert Guillemin,(Medicine) Dr Herbert A. Hauptman, (Chemistry 1985) Dr Dudley Herschbach,(Chemistry 1986) Dr Roald Hoffman , (Chemistry 1981) Dr Gerardus 't Hooft,(Physics 1999) Dr David H. Hubel ,(Medicine 1981) Dr Brian Josephson, (Physics) Dr Arthur Kornberg ,(Medicine 1959) Sir Harry Kroto, (Chemistry 1996) Dr Paul C. Lauterburg,(Medicine 2003) Dr Leon M. Lederman , (Physics 1988) Dr Jean-Marie Lehn, (Chemistry 1987) Dr Marshall Nirenberg, (Medicine 1968) Dr Mario Molina, (Chemistry 1995) Dr Kary Mullis, (Chemistry 1993) Dr Ferid Murad, (Medicine 1998) Dr John C. Polanyi, (Chemistry 1986) Dr Richard Roberts, (Medicine) Dr Frederick Sanger, (Chemistry 1958, 1980) Dr Jack Steinberger, (Physics 1998) Sir John Sulton, (Medicine 2002) Dr E. Donnall Thomas, (Medicine 1990) Dr Martinus Veltman, (Physics 1999) Frank Wilczek, (Physics 2004) Dr Kurt Wuthrich (Chemistry 2002)

Other distinguished Persons:

Maestro Mstislav Rostropovich Dr. Robert Muller (Fmr UN assistant Secy General)

Edgar Mitchell (Astronaut) Benjamin Ferencz, (Prosecutor at the Nuremburg War Crimes Trials) Prof Saul Mendlovitz, Dag Hammarskjold Professor, Rutgers Law School,

International Organisations:

Tadatoshi Akiba, Mayor of Hiroshima, president of Mayors for Peace, 750 mayors in 110 countries

Ronald Mc Coy President, John Loretz, Program Director, International Physicians for the Prevention of Nuclear War (IPPNW) (Nobel Prize)

Emma Mc Gregor-Mento, Abolition-2000

Cora Weiss, Hague Appeal for Peace (HAP),

Colin Archer, Secy - General, International Peace Bureau, Geneva (Nobel Prize)

Selma Brackman, President, War and Peace Foundation, NY,

Alyn Ware, International Association of Lawyers Against Nuclear Arms,

Nicky Davies, Greenpeace International, Amsterdam,

Susi Snyder, Secy -General, Women's International League for Peace and Freedom (WILPF), Geneva,

Bruce Gagnon, Global Network Against Weapons and Nuclear Power in Space, Brunswick, ME, USA,

Vijay Mehta, Chair, World Disarmament Campaign, Lond,

Charles Mercieca, International Association of Educators for World Peace (IAEWP) Huntsville Ala, USA,

Pol D'Huyvetter, For Mother Earth International, Ghent, Belgium,

James K. Galbraith, Kate Cell, Director, Lucy Webster, UN Observer, Economists for Peace and Security (formerly Economists Allied for Arms Reduction/ (ECAAR))

Lucy Law Webster, Institute for Global Policy,

Rev. Vernon C. Nickols, UN Observer/NGO Rep, Nuclear Age Peace Foundation,

Yumi Kikuchi, founder, Global Peace Campaign,

Peer de Rijk, World Information Service on Energy (WISE) Amsterdam,

David Mumford, International Fellowship of Reconciliation (IFOR), Alkmaar, Neth,

Penny McManigal, The Millionth Circle, USA,

Mary T. Legge SSJ, DPI/NGO at UN for Congregations of St Joseph,

Nancy EW Colton, Anglican Consultative Council for the Episcopal Church Worldwide,

Nancy EW Colton, International Association for Volunteer Effort,

Nancy EW Colton, Secy, NGO Committee on Disarmament, Peace, and Security,

Bruce K. Gagnon Coordinator, Global Network Against Weapons & Nuclear Power in Space, Brunswick, ME,

David Schweitzer, Schweitzer Institute,

Nouri Abdul Razak Husain, Afro-Asian Peoples Solidarity Organisation (AAPSO)

Phil Esmonde, Regional Adviser, Peace Building and Conflict Reduction, Oxfam (Identification purposes only).

US Organisations:

Helen Caldicott,(founder PSR, WAND) President, Nuclear Policy Research Institute, Wash DC,

Alice Slater, Global Resource and Action Centre for the Environment, NY,

Martin Butcher, PSR, Washington DC,

Bruce Blair, President, Centre for Defence Information, Washington,
(identification only)

Jonathan Granoff, President, Global Security Institute, (pers capy)

David Krieger, Nuclear Age Peace Foundation, Santa Barbara, Calif,

Rev. Vernon C. Nichols, UN-NGO Rep, Nuclear Age Peace Foundation,

Ellen Thomas, Proposition-1 Committee, Washington, USA,

Pamela S. Meidell, Atomic Mirror, Port Hueneme, Calif, USA.,

David Robinson, Pax Christi USA, Erie, PA,

Peggy L. Shriver, Fmr Asst. General Secy, National Council of Churches, NY.,

Donald W. Shriver, Union Theological Seminary, NY.,

Rev. William J. Morton, SSC, Columban Mission Office, US/Mexico Border, El Paso Texas, USA,

Sr Mary Peter Bruce, Loretto Community New York, NY,

Bernice Fisher, Penninsula WILPF, Palo Alto Calif,

Bill Smirnow, Nuclear- Free New York,

Donald Keesing, Voices Opposed to Environmental Racism, Wash DC,

Lorraine Krofchok, Grandmothers for Peace International, Elk Grove, Calif,

Vina Colley, PRESS, Ohio,

Bruce A. Drew, Prairie Island Coalition, Mn, USA,

George Crocker, N. American Water office, Lake Elmo, Mn, USA,

Daniel Ellsberg, Truth-Telling Project, (Fmr RAND consultant to White House on Nuclear C3I)

Kathy Kelly, Coordinator, Voices in the Wilderness, Chicago Ill,

Patricia J. Ameno, Chair, Citizens Action for a Safe Environment, Penn,

Francis Chiappa, President, Cleveland Peace Action,

John Laforge, Bonnie Urfer, Nukewatch, WI, USA,

Andrew Hund, Alaska/Arctic Environmental Defense Fund,

Coleen Marshall Secy, Sheldon Nidle, Founder, Planetary Activation Organisation, Hawaii,

Marsha Joyner, President, Hawiian National Communications Corporation, Honululu, Hawaii,

Paul Ehrlich, President, Centre of Conservation Biology, Stanford University, Stanford, Calif,

Irving Stolberg, President, Caucus of Connecticut Democrats,

Irving Stolberg, President, Connecticut Division, United Nations Association,

Barbara Murphy-Warrington, CARE-USA, Atlanta, Georgia,

Alanna Hartzog, Co-Director, Earth Rights Institute, PA,

Beth A. Pirolli, Director, Families United for a Safe Environment (FUSE),

Carolyn Vigneri, Nebraskans for Peace, Omaha, Nebraska, USA,

Glen Carroll, Georgians Against Nuclear Energy, Atlanta, GA, USA,

Robert Gould MD, Physicians for Sociel Responsibility (PSR) San Francisco Bay Area, Berkley, Calif,

Samuel S. Epstien MD, Chair, Cancer Prevention Coalition, Chcago, Ill,

Dr Kathleen Sullivan, Nuclear Weapons Education and Action Prject, NY.,

Terri Swearingen (1997 Golman Prize) Tri-State Environmental Council, WV.,

Bill Towe, North Carolina Peace Action, NC, USA,

Medea Benjamin, Co-Founder, Global Exchange,

Jennifer O. Viereck, Director HOME: Healing Ourselves & Mother Earth, Tecopa, CA,

Bob Kinsey, Colorado Coalition for the Prevention of Nuclear War,

Kevin Martin Executive Director Peace Action and Peace Action Education Fund, MD,

Bob Alpern, Coordinator, Action for Nuclear Disarmament, Sonoma County, CA

Preston J. Truman, Downwinders, Malad, Idaho,

Stanley Romaine, Great Neck SANE/Peace Action

Hannah Pallmayer, Women Against Military Madness, (WAMM), Minnesota, USA,

Margaret Groarke, Director of Peace Studies, Manhattan College, Bronx, NY,

Dr Norman L. Brown, (Manhattan Project Veteran),

Linda Muolton-Howe,, Albuquerque, NM,

Congressman Dennnis Kucinich, Ohio,

Canadian Organisations

Debbie Grisdale President/Steven Starr, Physicians for Global Responsibility, (PGS),

Rosalie Bertell, President Emeritus, International Institute for Concern for Public Health, Toronto, Ont,

Roy and Anne Morris, Salmon Arm Kairos Group, BC, Canada,

Gordon Edwards PhD, President, Canadian Coalition for Nuclear Responsibility (CCNR),

Desmond Berghofer, Co-Founder, Institute for Ethical Leadership, Vancouver Canada,

Metta Spencer, Editor, Peace Magazine, Toronto, Ont,

Mike Nickerson, Sustainability Project - 7th Generation Initiative, Ont,

Dr F. H. Knelman, Vice-President, The Whistler Foundation, Victoria BC, Canada,

Patrick Groulx, Iron John and Mary With a Snugly (IJAMWAS), Etobicoke, Ontario, Can

Libby Davies MP, Vancouver East, Canada,

Bill Blaikie MP, Elmwood-Transcona (NDP), Canada,

Douglas Roche, Senator Emeritus, Fmr Disarmament Ambassador, Canada

UK Organisations

Dr Kate Hudson, Chair, Sam Akaki, Parliamentary Officer, the Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament (CND), UK

Jenny Maxwell, West Midlands Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament, Birmingham, UK,

Reuben Ralph Say, Woking Action for Peace/CND, Woking, Surrey, UK,

Caroline Gilbert, Patricia Pulham, Michael Pulham, Christian Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament (CCND),

Jill Stallard National Secy, CND Cymru, Nantagredig, Cynghordy, Llanymddyfri, Wales, UK,

Prof. Dave Webb, CND Yorkshire,

George Farebrother, World Court Project, Lond, UK,

Dr David Lowry, Fmr Director, European Proliferation Information Centre (EPIC), Lond,

Di Mc Donald, Nuclear Information Service, (NIS) Southampton, UK,

Ken Coates, Chair, Bertrand Russel Peace Foundation,

Angie Zelter, Trident Ploughshares UK,

Richard Bramhall, Low-Level Radiation Campaign, Llandridod, Powys, UK,

Lindis Percy/Anni Rainbow, CAAB, Yorks, UK,

Janet Bloomfield, Coordinator, Atomic Mirror UK, Saffron Walden, UK,

David Bowe, MEP,

Dr Caroline Lucas MEP, Green Member of the European Parliament for S.E. England

Alan Simpson MP,

David Chaytor MP, Member for Bury North,

Frank Cook MP, Westminster,

Llew Smith MP, Blaenau, Gwent, Wales,

John Mc Donnel MP, Labour, Hayes and Harlington, Middlesex,

Harry Cohen MP, House of Commons, UK,

John Austin MP, Labour, Erith and Thamesmead, UK,

Malcolm Savidge MP,

Baroness Susan Miller, House of Lords, Lond,

Russian& Ukrainian Organisations

Vladimir Sliviak, Co-Chair, Ecodefense, Moscow,

Professor Alexey Yablokov, President, Centre for Russian Environmental Policy, Moscow,

Andrei Laletin, Chairman, Friends of the Siberian Forests, Krasnoyarsk, Russia,

Jennie Sutton, Baikal Environmental Wave,

Victor Khazan, Friends of the Earth Ukraine, Dneipropetrovsk, Ukr,

Serghiy Fedorynchyck, Zelelenyi Zvit, Kiev, Ukraine,

Sergei Kolesnikov, Duma Member, Deputy Chair, Cttee on Education and Science, Moscow,

Sergei Kolesnikov, IPPNW-Russia,

Indian Organisations

Achin Vanaik, Admiral L. Ramdas, Lalita Ramdas, Sukla Sen, Smithu Kothari, Coalition for Nuclear Disarmament and Peace (CNDP), India New Delhi,

Admiral L. Ramdas, India-Pakistan Soldiers Initiative for Peace, Raigad Dist, Maharashtra,

Hari Sharma, President, International South Asia Forum,

Sukla Sen, EKTA, Mumbai, India,

Mahipal Singh, General Secy, Peoples Union for Civil Liberties,
(PUCL) New Delhi,

Imrana Quadeer, Centre for Community Health and Social Medicine, JNU, New Delhi,

Harsh Kapoor, (India/France) South Asians Against Nukes,

Jayanti Patel, Indian Radical Humanist Association, Ahmedabad, Gujarat,

Kirity Roy, Secy, MASUM, Howrah, W. Bengal,

Swami Manavatavadi, International School of Humanitarian Thoughts and Practice, Rajghat, Kurukshetra, Haryana,

Aruna Roy, Mazdoor Kisan Shakti Sangathan (MKSS), Rajasthan,

The National Campaign for the Peoples Right to Information (NCPRI) Rajasthan, India,

Ammu Abraham, Womens Centre, Mumbai,

Meenakshi Gopinath, Women in Security, Conflict Management and Peace
(An initiative of the Foundation for Universal Responsibility of HH The Dalai Lama), New Delhi,

Dr. J. Amaloorpavanathan, Physicians for Peace, Chennai, TN, India,

Sandeep Pandey, Arundhati Dhuru, National Association of Peoples Movements (NAPM), Global Peace March,

Rajiv R. Singh, Network to Oust Nuclear Energy, (NONE) New Delhi,

Anita Bharti, Centre for Alternative Dalit Media (CADAM) Delhi,

Smithu Kothari, Intercultural Resources, New Delhi,

Prahlad Shekawat, Alternative Development Centre, India,

J. Gurumurthy, All-India Insurance Employees Association, Chennai, Tamil Nadu India

Dr Shaikh Sarfaraz Ali, Dept of Physics, JMI, New Delhi,

Arjun Dev, NCERT, New Delhi,

Wilfred D'Costa, Secy, Indian National Social Action Forum (INSAF) Delhi,

Pritam K. Rohila, Association for Communal Harmony in Asia,

Amelia Andrews, Associate Executive Secretary, National Council of Churches in India,

Pakistani Organisations

Pirzada Imtiaz Syed, Secy, All-Pakistan Federation of United Trade Unions (APFUTU), Gujrat, Pakistan,

AH Nayyar, President, Pakistan Peace Coalition,

Dr Mubashir Hasan, (Fmr finance minister) Campaigner for Human Rights and India-Pakistan Friendship, Pakistan-India Forum for Peace and Democracy.

Prof. M. Ismail, Director, RISE, Peshawar, Pakistan,

Bangladeshi Organisations

M.W. Faruque, President, Youth Approach for Development and Cooperation (YADC)

Paltan Development Coordinating Organisation

Sugandha Sanskritic Kendra,

Society for Legal Rights

The Daily Matrijagat

Bangabandhu Gabeshana Sangstha

Association for Law Research and Human Rights (ALERT)

NZ Organisations

Commander Robert Green, Disarmament and Security Centre, Christchurch, NZ,

Alyn Ware, Peace Foundation, Wellington, NZ,

Marion Hancock, Wendy John, Aotearoa/NZ Peace Foundation, Auckland NZ,

Christine Lesley, Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament, Wellington, NZ,

R.E. White, Director, Centre for Peace Studies, University of Auckland, NZ,

Peter Low, Quaker Peace and Service, NZ,

Jonathan Hunt MP, Speaker, NZ Parliament,

Keith Locke MP, Greens, NZ,

Rod Donald MP, Co-Leader, Greens, NZ,

Gordon Copeland MP, United Future Party,

Tim Barnett MP, Labor, Christchurch Central Electorate, Christchurch NZ,

Australian Organisations

Sue Wareham, President, Medical Association for the Prevention of War (MAPW),

Margaret Reynolds, President, United Nations Association of Australia (UNAA),

Jo Vallentine, People for Nuclear Disarmament W.A.,

David Sweeney, Nuclear Campaigner, Australian Conservation Foundation, Carlton, Vic,

Peter Robertson Environment Centre of the Northern Territory (ECNT) Darwin, NT,

Gar Smith, Environmentalists Against War,

Stop The War Coalition, Victoria,

Dr Stella Cornelius, Director, Conflict Resolution Network, Chatswood NSW,

Ned Iceton, Co-Convenor, Social Development Network, Armidale NSW,

Ralph Summy, Australian Centre for Peace and Conflict Studies, Uni of Queensland,

Peter Burton, Peace Partners, Toowoomba, Qld,

Dr Mark Zirnsak, Director, Justice and International Mission, Synod of Victoria and Tasmania, Uniting Church in Australia,

Rev Sue Gorman, Moderator, Synod of Victoria and Tasmania, Uniting Church in Australia,

Keith Russel, Religious Society of Friends, ACT,

Senator Kerry Nettle, Greens, NSW,

Senator Lyn Alison, Australian Democrats Vic,

Senator Andrew Bartlett, Australian Democrats Qld,

Senator Aden Ridgeway, Australian Democrats NSW,

Senator Natasha Stott-Despoja, Australian Democrats SA,

Senator Brian Grieg, Australian Democrats WA,

Terry Roberts MP, SA,

Carmen Lawrence MHR, President, Labor Party,

Jill Hall MHR,

Warren Snowden MHR, ALP Member for Lingiari NT,

Alan Griffin MHR, ALP Member for Bruce, Melb,

Jann Mc Farlane MHR, ALP Member for Stirling, W.A.,

Tanya Plibersek MHR, ALP Member for Sydney, NSW,

Dee Margetts MLC (Greens), W.A.,

Giz Watson, Greens, W.A.,

Ian Cohen MLC (Greens) NSW,

Kerrie Tucker MLA, Greens ACT,

Swedish Organisations

Agneta Norberg/Bo Wirmark, Chair, Swedish Peace Council,

Stefan Bjornsson, President, Swedish Scientists and Engineers Against Nuclear Arms (SEANA), Stockholm,

Gunnar Westberg, President, SLMK (IPPNW Sweden), Goteborg, Sweden,

Anders Ygeman MP, Stockholm,

Marilyn Barden, Chair, Stockholm Peace Committee, Sweden,

Danish Organisations

Poul Eck Sorensen, Peace Movement of Esbjerg,

Poul Eck Sorensen, Peace Council of Denmark,

Holger Terp/John Avery, Danish Peace Academy,

John Avery, Pugwash Conference Denmark,

Finnish Organisations

Teemu Matinpuro, Director, Finnish Peace Committee, Helsinki, Finland,

Lea Launokari, Women for Peace Finland,

Ulla Kotzer, Women Against Nuclear Power Finland,

Heidi Hautala MP Greens,

Kimmo Kiljunen MP, Social Democrats, Finland,

German Organisations

Eva Quistorp, Women for Peace, Berlin, Germany,

Eva Quistorp, Berlin Declaration, Berlin, Germany,

Henning Droege, Arzt fur Allgemeinmedizin, Homoopathie, Naturheilverfahren, Allgau, Germany,

Wolfgang Schlupp-Hauck, Friedens-und Begegnungsstaette Mutlangen eV, Germany,

Bernd Frieboese, Barsebackoffensiv (Pers capy)

Rienhard Voss, Pax Christi Germany, Franfurt Am Main,

Dr Anne Brie MEP PDS,

Uta Zapf, MP, Chair, Bundestag Committee on Arms Control, Disarmament and Nonproliferation,

Belgian Organisations

Hans Lammerant, Forum Voor Vredesaktie, Belgium,

Zoe Genot MP, Greens, Belgium,

Eloi Glorieux MP, Greens, Flemish Regional Parliament, Belgium,

Muriel Gerkens MP, Greens, Brussels,

Senator Patrick Vankrunkelsven, Brussels, Belg,

Marie Isler-Beguin, MEP,

Edith Klein, European Commission, Brussels, Belg,

Netherlands Organisations

Harry Van Bommel MP, Neth,

Joost Lagendijk, Member of European Parliament, GroenLinks, Netherlands,

Senator Leo Platvoet, Green-Left, Amsterdam Neth,

Fiona Dove, Director, Transnational Institute, Neth,

Carolien Van de Stadt, WILPF-Netherlands,

Frank Slijper, Campagne Tegen Wapenhandel, Gromingen, Neth,

Marjan Lucas, IKV Interchurch Peace Council, Amsterdam Netherlands,

French Organisations

Dominique Lalanne, Co-Chair, Stop Essais, France,

Bruno Barrilot, Director, Observatoire des Armes Nucleaires Francaises, Lyons, France,

Jean-Marie Matagne, Action des Citoyens pour le Desarmement Nucleaire
(ACDN) Saintes, France,

Luisa Morgantini MEP, Italy/Brussells

Folena Pietro, MP Italy, Foreign Affairs Commission, Democrats of the Left (DS) - Olive Tree Coalition

Hallgeir H. Langeland MP, Norway,

Bent Natvig, Chair, Norwegian Pugwash Committee, Oslo, Norway,

Czech Peace Society, Prague, Czech Rep,

Berta Suttner Society, Prague, Czech Rep,

Romanian Organisations

Constantin Cretu, Romanian Social Forum, Bucharest, Romania,

Constantin Cretu, 'Carpathians Genius' Bucharest, Romania,

Aurel Duta, For Mother Earth, Bucharest, Romania,

Constantin S. Lacatus, Sibenii Pacifistii, Sibiu, Romania,

Manana Kochladze, 'Green Alternative', Tblisi, Georgia,

Japanese Organisations

Atsushi Fujioka, Kyoto Museum for World Peace, Kyoto, Japan,

Hideyuki-Ban, Secy-General, Citizens Nuclear Information Centre
(CNIC) Tokyo, Japan,

Yayoi Tsuchida, International Secretary, Gensuikyo, (Japan Council Against A and H Bombs)

Shigetoshi Iwamatsu, Chair, Gensuikin, (Japan Congress Against A and H Bombs).

Wen Bo, Pacific Environment, Beijing, China,

Kim Choony, Korean Federation for Environmental Movement, (KFEM)

Prof Samsung Lee, Political Science, Hallym University,

Mexican Organisations

Efraim Cruz Marin, President, Academicos de Ciencias y Humanidades, Mexico,

Noni Fernandez, Mexican Initiative Against War, Chiapas, Colonia Roma,

Luis Gutterrez Esparza, President, Latin-American Circle for International Studies (LACIS), Mexico City,

Grace de Haro, APDH, Rio Negro, Argentina,

Dina Lida Kinoshita, Unesca Catedra for Education for Peace, Human Rights, Democracy and Tolerance, Sao Paulo, Brasil,

Senator Roberto Saturnino, Brasilian Federal Senate, (for Rio de Janiero)

Roy Cabonegro, YSDA-Pilipinas, Quezon City, Phillipines,

Clemente G. Bautista, Kalikasan, (Peoples Network for the Environment) Phillipines,

Soodhakur Ramlallah Secy Mauritius Union of Journalists Port Louis Mauritius

Bishan Singh, SUSDEN, Malaysia,

Dato Haji Mustapha Ma, Secy, IFNGO, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia,

Lonngena Ginting, WALHI/Friends of the Earth Indonesia, Jakarta, Indonesia,

Saranjan Kodithuwakku, Green Movement of Sri Lanka, Nugegoa, Sri Lanka,

Binda Pandey, Secy-General, General Federation of Nepalese Trade Unions (GEFONT), Kathmandhu Nepal,

Maria D. Watondoha MP, Tanzanian National Assembly, Dodoma, Tanzania,

Hon. Dr Diodorus Buberwa Kamala MP, Mzumbe, Tanzania,

Edward Appiah-Brafoh, Green Earth Organisation, Accra, Ghana,

Fifanampiana Malgasy (Madagascar Solidarity Committee)

Gisele Rabesahala, fmr Minister of Culture, fmr Vice-President of Madagascar Senate,

Dr. Araf Marei, Vice President, Egyptian Association for Community Participation, Cairo, Egypt,

Dr Akram Alhamdani, President, Green Party of Iraq, Baghdad

Dr Ahmad Al Hashimi, Iraqi Relief Foundation, Ont, Canada,

Ayman Jallad, Humanitarian Group for Social Development, Beirut, Lebanon,

Stephen J. Stanton, Cedarwatch, Lebanon,

Mabrouk Boudaga, Arab Young Lawyers Association, Tunis, Tunisia,

From: John Hallam Nuclear Weapons Campaigner Friends of the Earth Australia, Note New Email adress
61-2-9567-7533 /9567-7644 h61-2-9810-2598
1 Henry Street Turella NSW Aust 2205




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