13
Mai
2006

Your Cell Phone is Dangerous: Health Hazards Revealed

Found this 2 part radio programme online, thought it might be of interest.

Part 1: http://www.prx.org/pieces/10929
Part 2: http://www.prx.org/pieces/10930

How safe ARE cell phones???? This was the question posed by Congress to the cell phone industry in 1993. In response, the industry hired epidemiologist George Carlo, MD, PHD. (author of Cell Phones: Invisible Hazards in the Wireless Age), to conduct research into the safety of using cell phones. Dr. Carlo gathered a team of over 200 scientists and experts in the field. After 5 years and 28 million dollars, the results (now replicated in Europe) showed that cell phones were in fact quite dangerous!! Their research documented a clear link between cell phone use and brain tumors, showed it can cause genetic damage that is a known marker for cancer, can compromise the blood brain barrier and disrupt cardiac pacemakers. When Dr. Carlo reported these results to the industry they cut off his funding and did their best to discredit him! Like the tobacco industry, the cell phone industry KNOWS that cell phones can be hazardous to your health and like the tobacco industry is doing their best to bury and discredit the research. In this special two part edition of the Living Well show, Dr. Carlo tells your listeners about the TRUE hazards of cell phones, the hazards the industry does NOT want them to know about.


Letter To AT&T Chairman C. Michael Armstrong From WTR Chairman Dr. George L. Carlo

This letter reveals that the occurrence of brain cancer and certain types of tumors among cellular phone users is twice that of non-users. Dr. Carlo is requesting AT&T's assistance to distribute this information to consumers so that they can make an "informed judgment about how much of this unknown risk they wish to assume in their use of wireless phones."

A signed copy of this letter was also sent to a panel of experts convened by the British Parliament to evaluate the science and health concerns regarding wireless communications.

7 October 1999

Mr. C. Michael Armstrong
Chairman and Chief Executive Officer
AT & T Corporation
32 Avenues of the Americas
New York, New York 100313-2412

Dear Mr. Armstrong:

After much thought, I am writing this letter to you, personally, to ask your assistance in solving what I believe is an emerging and serious problem concerning wireless phones. I write this letter in the interest of the more than 80 million wireless phone users in the United States and the more than 200 million worldwide. But I also write this letter in the interest of your industry, a critical part of our social and economic infrastructure.

Since 1993, I have headed the WTR surveillance and research program funded by the wireless industry. The goal of WTR has always been to identify and solve any problems concerning consumers' health that could arise from the use of these phones. This past February, at the annual convention of the CTIA, I met with the full board of that organization to brief them on some surprising findings from our work. I do not recall if you were there personally, but my understanding is that all segments of the industry were represented.

At that briefing, I explained that the well-conducted scientific studies that WTR was overseeing indicated that the question of wireless phone safety had become confused.

Specifically, I reported to you that:

The rate of death from brain cancer among handheld phone users was higher than the rate of brain cancer death among those who used non-handheld phones that were away from their head;

The risk of acoustic neuroma, a benign tumor of the auditory nerve that is well in range of the radiation coming from a phone's antenna system, was fifty percent higher in people who reported using cell phones for six years or more, moreover, that relationship between the amount of cell phone use and this tumor appeared to follow a dose-response curve;

The risk of rare neuro epithelial tumors on the outside of the brain was more than doubled, a statistically significant risk increase, in cell phone users as compared to people who did not use cell phones;

There appeared to be some correlation between brain tumors occurring on the right side of the head and the use of the phone on the right side of the head;

Laboratory studies looking at the ability of radiation from a phone's antenna system to cause functional genetic damage were definitively positive, and were following a dose-responsive relationship.

I also indicated that while our overall study of brain cancer occurrence did not show a correlation with cell phone use, the vast majority of the tumors that were studied were well out of range of the radiation that one would expect from a cell phone's antenna. Because of that distance, the finding of no effect was questionable. (Aegis Note: The entire phone is an antenna). Such misclassification of radiation exposure would tend to dilute any real effect that may have been present. In addition, I reported to you that the genetic damage studies we conducted to look at the ability of radiation from the phones to break DNA were negative, but that the positive finding of functional DNA damage could be more important, perhaps indicating a problem that is not dependent on DNA breakage, and that these inconsistencies needed to be clarified. I reported that while none of these findings alone were evidence of a definitive health hazard from wireless phones, the pattern of potential health effects evidenced by different types of studies, from different laboratories and by different investigators, raised serious questions.

Following my presentation, I heard by voice vote of those present, a pledge to "do the right thing in following up these findings" and a commitment of the necessary funds.

When I took on the responsibility of doing this work for you, I pledged five years. I was asked to continue on through the end of a sixth year, and agreed. My tenure is now completed. My presentation to you and the CTIA board in February was not an effort to lengthen my tenure at WTR, nor to lengthen the tenure of WTR itself. I was simply doing my job of letting you know what we found and what needed to be done following from our findings. I made this expressly clear during my presentation to you and in many subsequent conversations with members of your industry and the media.

Today, I sit here extremely frustrated and concerned that appropriate steps have not been taken by the wireless industry to protect consumers during this time of uncertainty about safety. The steps I am referring to were specifically followed from the WTR program and have been recommended repeatedly in public and private for and by me and other experts from around the world. As I prepare to move away from the wireless phone issue and into a different public health direction, I am concerned that the wireless industry is missing a valuable opportunity by dealing with these public health concerns through politics, creating illusions that more research over the next several years helps consumers today, and false claims that regulatory compliance means safety. The better choice by the wireless industry would be to implement measured steps aimed at true consumer protection.

Alarmingly, indications are that some segments of the industry have ignored the scientific findings suggesting potential health effects, have repeatedly and falsely claimed that wireless phones are safe for all consumers including children, and have created an illusion of responsible follow up by calling for and supporting more research. The most important measures of consumer protection are missing: complete and honest factual information to allow informed judgment by consumers about assumption of risk; the direct tracking and monitoring of what happens to consumers who use wireless phones; and, the monitoring of changes in the technology that could impact health.

I am especially concerned about what appear to be actions by a segment of the industry to conscript the FCC, the FDA and The World Health Organization with them in following a non-effectual course that will likely result in a regulatory and consumer backlash.

As an industry, you will have to deal with the fallout from all of your choices, good and bad, in the long term. But short term, I would like your help in effectuating an important public health intervention today.

The question of wireless phone safety is unclear. Therefore, from a public health perspective, it is critical for consumers to have the information they need to make an informed judgment about how much of this unknown risk they wish to assume in their use of wireless phones.

Informing consumers openly and honestly about what is known and not-known about health risks is not liability laden - it is evidence that your industry is being responsible, and doing all it can to assure safe use of its products. The current popular backlash we are witnessing in the United States today against the tobacco industry is derived in large part from perceived dishonesty on the part of that industry in not being forthright about health effects. I urge you to help your industry not repeat that mistake.

As we close out the business of the WTR, I would like to openly ask for your help in distributing the summary findings we have complied of our work. This last action is what always has been anticipated and forecast in the WTR's research agenda. I have asked another organization with which I am affiliated, The Health Risk Management Group (HRMG), to help us with this public health intervention step, and to put together a consumer information package for widespread distribution. Because neither WTR nor HRMG have the means to effectuate this intervention, I am asking you to help us do the right thing.

I would be happy to talk to you personally about this.

Sincerely yours

George L. Carlo Ph.D, M.S., J.D
Chairman
Wireless Technology Research LLC

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I Gary,

Did you listen to the Dr Carlo Interview that was posted on this list recently? He claimed to have received a letter from a military source in September 1999 claiming the military had known about the health effects of microwaves since the 40s and had come up with a solution. However, a deal with the Industry was struck and signed off by the president himself in 1996 which allowed for the original information to be destroyed before it was declassified.

Andrea


From Mast Sanity/Mast Network

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Also look up the Dr George Carlo interview on EMF-Omega-News 13. May 2006 http://omega.twoday.net/stories/1957891/

It’s terrifying if his predictions are true by 2015 we will be seeing the biggest health disaster the world has ever seen with 1 in 4 people experiencing health effects.

Governments of the world must act NOW!

Best wishes

Eileen O’Connor

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http://www.avaate.org/article.php3?id_article=263

Your Cell Phone is Dangerous. A Special Radio Interview with Dr. George Carlo Dr. George Carlo, Ph.D, M.S., J.D, respected epidemiologist and public health scientist, headed the $28.5 million research program funded by the cell phone industry. Dr. Carlo has appeared on 20/20, 60 Minutes, World News Tonight, CBS News with Dan Rather and The Today's Show, as well as on CNN, Fox News, and MSNBC. In July 2006, a documentary film of his work will be released in major theaters.

Asociación Vallisoletana de Afectad@s por las Antenas de Telecomunicaciones - AVAATE


Informant: Eileen O'Connor

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Portables en accusation
http://omega.twoday.net/stories/2258210/



http://omega.twoday.net/search?q=Carlo

Genetic damage in mobile phone users: some preliminary findings

Gandhi Gursatej, Anita

Department of Human Genetics, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar 143 005, India

Correspondence Address:
Gandhi Gursatej
Dept. of Human Genetics, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar 143 005
India
jrgandhi@sancharnet.in

Abstract

BACKGROUND: The impact of microwave (MW)/radio frequency radiation (RFR) on important biological parameters is probably more than a simply thermal one. Exposure to radio frequency (RF) signals generated by the use of cellular telephones have increased dramatically and reported to affect physiological, neurological, cognitive and behavioural changes and to induce, initiate and promote carcinogenesis. Genotoxicity of RFR has also been reported in various test systems after in vitro and/or in vivo exposure but none in mobile phone users. AIMS: In the present study, DNA and chromosomal damage investigations were carried out on the peripheral blood lymphocytes of individuals using mobile phones, being exposed to MW frequency ranging from 800 to 2000 MHz. METHODS: DNA damage was assessed using the single cell gel electrophoresis assay and aneugenic and clastogenic damage by the in vivo capillary blood micronucleus test (MNT) in a total of 24 mobile phone users. RESULTS: Mean comet tail length (26.76 ± 0.054 mm; 39.75% of cells damaged) in mobile phone users was highly significant from that in the control group. The in vivo capillary blood MNT also revealed highly significant (0.25) frequency of micronucleated (MNd) cells. CONCLUSIONS: These results highlight a correlation between mobile phone use (exposure to RFR) and genetic damage and require interim public health actions in the wake of widespread use of mobile telephony.

How to cite this article:
Gandhi G, A. Genetic damage in mobile phone users: some preliminary findings.Indian J Hum Genet 2005;11:99-104

How to cite this URL:
Gandhi G, A. Genetic damage in mobile phone users: some preliminary findings. Indian J Hum Genet [serial online] 2005 [cited 2006 May 13 ];11:99-104
Available from: http://www.ijhg.com/article.asp?issn=0971-6866;year=2005;volume=11;issue=2;spage=99;epage=104;aulast=Gandhi

Full Text

The continued spread of mobile telephony is of serious concerns since a relationship between electromagnetic fields radio frequency (RF) and microwave (MW) radiation and adverse health effects at low intensity exposures exists. The cell (mobile) phone is an appliance that requires that it be held close to or touching the head, which is the most sensitive organ of the body. This has initiated a spate of studies to enquire for effects on user health and explore mechanisms of interaction responsible for reported biological sequel on humans, animals and organic cells from acute and chronic exposures from mobile phone frequencies. Generally, the higher the frequency the less able electromagnetic radiation is to penetrate materials. However, even millimetre waves penetrate irradiated skin to a depth of 1 mm, while the microcirculatory system of the skin functions at 150 mm and so is fully accessible to EHF exposure. Lower frequencies can however penetrate further. The mode of interaction between nonionising electromagnetic radiation and tissue is also highly dependent on the dielectric behaviour of water and dissolved ions at RF and MW frequencies.

Wireless communication systems operate in the 400-2000 MHz range, differing in respect to frequency usage in different countries and on different continents. In fact, the use of the digital communication system that transmits radio frequency radiations (RFR) at higher frequencies in this range has increased dramatically. The Indian mobile phone market has also shown dramatic ascent and has 40.6 million users with the global system of mobile communication (GSM) service having 32.02 million registered users and the code division multiple access (CDMA) subscribers with 8.6 million (www.Indianews.com, October 2004). The potential for health effects from low intensity RF/MW radiation from the 'weight of the scientific evidence' points to a relationship between RF/MW and illness.

Some of the biological effects associated with RF radiation include RF sickness, electroencephalographic changes, cell proliferation[1] and blood pressure changes, blood-brain barrier leakage,[2] altered EEG patterns[3] and decreased fertility in mice.[4] Cancer risks and genotoxicity from exposure to RF fields in vivo and in vitro have rather been points of cynosure since equivocal evidences exist.[5],[6],[7],[8] Apparently no studies have documented genotoxicity in mobile phone users. The present investigation reports DNA and chromosomal damage in peripheral blood lymphocytes of mobile phone users by the single cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE/Comet) assay and the capillary blood in vivo micronucleus test (MNT). The study was cleared by the institutional ethical committee.

Methods

The subjects were selected on the basis of period of mobile phone use. Voluntary written informed consent was obtained and details on their diet, life style and health status were recorded. Age- and sex-matched healthy individuals who had never used the mobile phone formed the control group. Finger-prick blood samples were collected in heparinised eppendorf tubes, transported in an ice-box to the laboratory and processed for the comet assay[9],[10] and the MNT[11] within 3-4 h of collection. Peripheral blood cells were embedded in agarose on agar-coated slides, lysed under alkaline conditions to partially unwind DNA, electrophorosed followed by silver staining. Both the normal cells and comets (100/sample) were scored and DNA migration lengths were measured less than under 40x using an ocular micrometer calibrated with the help of a stage micrometer.

The MNT is based on the observation that when cells with chromatid breaks or exchanges undergo mitosis, a sizeable portion of chromatin that is not included in the daughter nuclei, forms a single micronucleus or multiple micronuclei. The in vivo MNT in lymphocytes of human capillary blood is a simpler, convenient, informative in vivo cytogenetic technique and its precision makes it more suitable to large-scale investigations and human biomonitoring studies. To 0.06 - 1.00 ml blood obtained through finger puncture, 0.3% methyl cellulose was added to blood in a v/v ratio of 1: 3 and kept in a water bath (37°C for 40-60 min).The lymphocyte suspension was then centrifuged at 1000 rpm for 6 min and the pellet, suspended in 43 ml of remaining supernatant, was used to make smears on glass slides. Air-dried smears were fixed in 100% methanol for 1 min and stained in buffered Giemsa (pH 6.4, 1:10, 20 min). Coded pre-parations were scored (2000 cells/sample at 40x) for MN [small, spherical and separated chromatin masses in small (T) lymphocytes]. The presence of micronuclei (as per the given criteria)[12] in the cells was confirmed at 100 x under oil immersion and randomly by another observer. The main nucleus and MN show dark blue against the light blue cytoplasm.

Results

Peripheral blood lymphocytes of individuals ( n = 24) using mobile phones were processed in order to assess whether mobile phone usage induces chromosomal and DNA damage. All those evaluated for the MN test ( n = 20) were also investigated for DNA damage and so are included among those ( n = 24) for which the SCGE assay was performed [Table 1]. Samples from age-, sex- and socioeconomic status-matched controls ( n = 11) were also processed for DNA damage ( n = 10) and the MN test ( n = 8). There were only three females among mobile phone users; very few smokers ( n = 2) and those taking alcohol ( n = 2). None of the subjects had any family history of any genetic anomaly or major illness nor had they undergone irradiation examination or been exposed to organic solvents and for the last 6 months none have been on medication or on drugs and no one did any regular exercise. The reproductive performance of married individuals ( n = 7) was known to be normal. However, some of the selected individuals ( n = 4) complained about sleeplessness, memory loss, less attentivity and heart pain, which they felt was associated with mobile phone vibrations. The usage of phone varied from one to 5 years with most persons ( n = 20) using it from 2 to 3 years. The specific absorption rate (SAR) gives estimates of the radiated energy given out by the cell phone and being absorbed into the body tissues in terms of Watts per kilogram (W/kg) or milliWatts per gram (mW/g) of body weight. The popular phone brands were Nokia (SAR = 0.87-1.47 W/kg) with 15 users, Samsung (SAR = 0.59 and 1.56 W/kg) with four, and Panasonic (SAR = 0.99 W/kg) with three users. The daily use of phone ranged from 1 to 15 h, which actually contributes to the daily direct exposure in the real sense though the mobile was kept on 'On' mode for 24 h by 22 subjects. There were 17 individuals attending phones from the right ears whereas nine attended from left ears. None subjects used any protective cases for mobile phones and no one among them availed of any special offer (s).

The SCGE assay results demonstrated DNA migration in ~40% (39.75) of mobile phone users with a mean tail length of 26.76 ± 0.054 mm (range 16.91 ± 0.192 to 31.86 ± 0.252 mm) which was significantly increased from the control value (8.11 ± 0.028 mm with 10.40% of cell damage). The maximum tail length was observed in the blood sample (with 43% cell damage) of a 28-year-old male who was dealing in automobile spare parts and was using Nokia 3310 (SAR = 1.27 W/kg) for the past 4 years. At the time of sample collection his daily communication on mobile phone was from 1.5 to 2.0 h. The higher value of comet tail length may be due to longer duration of mobile phone use as he is a nonsmoker, nonalcoholic, and nonvegetarian. Similarly in peripheral blood lymphocytes of another male aged 21 years (a two-wheeler mechanic), a long-tail length (31.12 mm, with 32% damaged cells) was observed. He had been using Nokia C131 (SAR = 0.87 W/kg) for 2.5 years with daily use of 1.5-2 h and probably with some exposure at his work place also contributing towards the genetic damage observed in his PBLs. The maximum number of damaged cells (63%) was observed in a male (24 years) using Samsung 220 (SAR = 0.59 W/kg) for 2 years with 1-1.5 h daily mobile phone usage. Among the control individuals, comet tail lengths ranged from 6.03 ± 0.130 to 10.3 ± 0.090 mm.

Chromosomal damage (aneugenic/clastogenic) was also scored for in 20 individuals and in eight controls. There was a marked difference in the frequencies of micronucleated (MNd) cells among subjects (av. 0.25 MNd cells) and the control group (av. 0.05 MNd cells; only 3.8% had MN). The maximum MNd cell frequency of 0.50 was observed in a male (24 years) who had been using Nokia 3310 (SAR = 1.24 W/kg) for 2 years with a daily use of 8-9 h and working in the customer-care department of a mobile phone company. The minimum frequency of MNd cells (0.10 each) was observed in two males aged 24 and 28 years, a businessman and software analyst, respectively. Both were using mobile phones for 2 years with SAR of 0.59 and 1.47 W/kg and with a daily use of 1-1.5 and 3-4 h, respectively.

Discussion

Both the MNT and SCGE assay were employed for assessing any genetic damage in mobile phone users being exposed to mobile phone MW frequency ranging from 800 to 2000 MHz. Significant increases in DNA tail lengths, of cells with DNA damage and in MNd cells of mobile phone users were observed. Data for DNA and chromosomal damage of female subjects were clubbed with that of male subjects, as there were no differences in the values. No significant influence of sex on MN frequency has been also reported in the in vivo capillary blood MN test.[11] More DNA damage than micronuclei induction in the same PBL samples was noted. This is because the MN test detects injuries that survive at least one mitotic cycle, while the comet assay identifies repairable injuries or alkali-labile sites, which cause an increased intensity of comet tail length but do not cause MN induction. It has been reported that when the exposure to genotoxic agents is small, even though there may be positive results in the comet assay, correspondingly positive results in the MN test may not occur.[13]

The presence of MNd cells was observed in only ~4% of control individuals. This low frequency may be due to good dietary patterns in the absence of smoking and drinking habits. Punjabi people have a fairly good intake of fruits and vegetables, which are associated with reduced risks for cancers. The carotenoids and carotenoid-rich foods can influence DNA damage and repair by modulating discrete stages in the DNA repair mechanisms.[14] The effects of mobile use can be curbed depending upon the availability of dietary antioxidants,[15] consumption of ethanol,[16] conditions like psychological stress[17] and strenuous physical exercise.[18] This emphasizes the speculation that some individuals may be more susceptible to the effects of RFR exposure.[19]

The results of the present study are in tune with some reports in the literature. Chromosome aberrations and micronuclei were significantly higher than the controls, in a group of workers exposed to 10 to 50 mW/cm2 of radar producing MWs and/or also exposed to about 5 ppm of vinyl chloride monomer, a known carcinogen.[20] Human lymphocytes exposed to MW radiation produced a dose response increase in chromosome aberrations.[21]

Occupational exposure to MWs in 12 workers had significantly increased chromosome damage as well as disturbances in the distribution of cells over the first-, second- and third-mitotic divisions.[22] In rat brain cells exposure of both continuous wave (CW) and pulsed microwaves (PW) caused significant increase in single- and double-strand DNA breakage with PW causing more damage than CW.[6] Neither direct chromosomal damage (chromosome aberrations and SCEs) nor tail moment and tail lengths increased in comet assay when human whole blood cells were exposed to continuous 935.2 MHz (SAR 0.3-0.4 W/kg) but a synergistic effect after RFR exposure followed by mitomycin-C was reported in the form of an increase in SCEs.[23] In vitro exposure of human peripheral blood lymphocytes to continuous 830 MHz EMF (SAR 1.65-8.8 W/kg) for 72 h caused losses and gains of chromosomes. A linear increase in Chr # 17 aneuploidy was observed as a function of SAR value at 34.5-37.5°C indicating that the genotoxic effect of the EMF is elicited via a nonthermal pathway.[24]

Some contrary reports include: absence of primary DNA damage in human glioblastoma and mouse fibroblast cells exposed to 835.62 MHz (FDMA) and 847.74 MHz (CDMA) RFR, respectively, at SAR 0.6 W/kg.[8] Equal number of DNA breaks in rat lymphocytes were reported in both controls and animals exposed to 945 MHz RFR for 1-5 weeks.[25]Human blood lymphocytes exposed to 837 MHz (TDMA), 837 MHz (CDMA) and 1900 MHz (PCS) showed no increase in primary DNA damage or of MNd binucleated human blood lymphocytes.[26] PBL cultures of 20 healthy donors exposed to CW intermittent exposure and GSM signals did not increase MN frequency in the cytokinesis - block MN assay.[27] PBL cultures exposed to both CW and PW 1.9 GHz RFR at SAR 0-10 W/kg for 24 h revealed no significant increase in DNA damage or MN frequency.[28] No statistically significant differences in the level of DNA damage or apoptosis by SCGE assay and annexin V affinity assay, respectively were observed between sham-treated and RF- exposed Molt-4T lymphoblastoid cells.[29]

In the light of this literature it can be observed that the studies documenting positive genotoxicity are those where there is mostly in vivo occupational exposure to RFR of mobile phone range. The present study clearly demonstrates the same, albeit the exposure is directly through mobile phone use. There is a potential for a very large worldwide public health impact in the wake of the results of this study and calls for interim public health protective measures.

References

1 Kwee S, Resmark P. Changes in cell proliferation due to environmental non-ionizing radiation 2. Microwave radiation. Bioelectrochem Bioenerg 1998;44:251-5.
2 Salford LG, Brun AE, Ederhardt JL, Malmgren L, Perssson BR. Nerve cell damage in mammalian brain after exposure to microwaves from GSM mobile phones. Environ Health Prespect 2003;111:881-3.
3 Kramarenko AV, Tan U. Effects of high frequency electromagnetic fields on human EEG: a brain mapping study. Int J Neurosci 2003;113:1007-19.
4 Magras IN, Xenos TD. RF radiation-induced changes in the prenatal development of mice. Bioelectromag 1997;18:455-61.
5 Anane R, Dulou PE, Taxile M, Geffard M, Crespeau FL, Veyret B. Effects of GSM-900 microwaves on DMBA-induced mammary gland tumors in female Sprague-Dawley rats. Radiat Res 2003;160:492-7.
6 Lai H, Singh NP. Single and double strand DNA breaks in rat brain cells after acute exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation. Int J Radiat Biol 1996;69:513-21.
7 Moulder JE, Erdriech LS, Malyapa RS, Merritt J, Pickard WF, Vijayalaxmi. Cell phones and cancer: what is the evidence for a connection: Radiat Res 1999;151:513-31.
8 Malyapa RS, Ahern EW, Straube WL, Moros EG, Pickard WF, Roti Roti JL. Measurement of DNA damage after exposure to electromagnetic radiation in the cellular phone communication frequency band (835.63 and 847.74 MHz). Radiat Res 1997;148:618-27.
9 Singh NP, McCoy MT, Tice RR, Schneider EL. A simple technique for quantitation of low levels of DNA damage in individual cells. Exp Cell Res 1988;175:184-91.
10 Ahuja YR, Saran R. Alkaline single cell gel electrophoresis Assay I. Protocol. Cytol Genet 1999;34:57-62.
11 Xue KX, Ma GJ, Wang S, Zhou P. The in vivo micronucleus test in human capillary blood lymphocytes: Methodological studies and effect of ageing. Mutat Res 1992;278:259-64.
12 Tolbert PE, Shy CM, Allen JW. Micronuclei and other nuclear anomalies in buccal smears; methods development. Mutat Res 1992;271:69-77.
13 Van Goethem F, Lison D, Kirsch-Volders M. Comparative evaluation of the in vitro micronucleus test and the alkaline single cell gel electrophoresis assay for the detection of DNA damaging agents: genotoxic effects of cobalt powder, tungsten carbide and cobalt-tungsten carbide. Mutat Res 1997;392:31-43.
14 Astley SB, Elliott RM, Archer DB, Southon S). Evidence that dietary supplementation with carotenoids and carotenoid-rich food modulates the DNA damage: repair balance in human lymphocytes. Br J Nutr 2004;91:63-72.
15 Arcioma OI. Nutrition and health aspects of free radicals and antioxidants. Food Chem. Toxicol 1994;32:671-83.
16 Kursoe I, Higuchi H, Kato S, Miura S, Ishii H. Ethanol induced oxidative stress in the liver. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 1996;20:77A-85A.
17 Haque MF, Aghabeighi B, Wasil M, Hodges S, Harris M. Oxygen free radicals in idiopathic facial pain. Bangaladesh Med Res Coun Bull 1994;20:104-16.
18 Clarkson PM. Antioxidants and physical performance. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutri 1995;35:131-41.
19 Lai H, Singh NP. Melatonin and a spin-trap compound block radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation-induced DNA strand breaks in rat brain cells. Bioelectromagnetics 1997;18:446-54.
20 Garaj-Vrhovac V, Fucic A, Horvat D. Comparison of chromosome aberration and micronucelus induction in human lymphocytes after occupational exposure to vinyl chloride monomer and microwave radiation. Periodicum Biologorium 1990;92:411-6.
21 Garaj-Vrhovac V, Fucic A, Horvat D. The correlation between the frequency of micronuclei and specific chromosome aberrations in human lymphocytes exposed to microwave radiation in vitro. Mutat Res 1992;281:181-6.
22 Garaj-Vrhovac V. Micronucleus assay and lymphocyte mitotic activity in risk assessment of occupational exposure to microwave radiation. Chemosphere 1999;39:2301-12.
23 Maes A, Collier M, Van Gorp U, Vandoninck S, Verschaeve L. Cytogenetic effects of 935.2-MHz (GSM) microwaves alone and in combination with mitomycin C. Mutat Res 1997;393:151-6.
24 Mashevich M, Folkman D, Kesar A, Barbul A, Korenstein R, Jerby E, et al. Exposure of human peripheral blood lymphocytes to electromagnetic fields associated with cellular phones leads to chromosomal instability. Bioelectromagnetics 2003;24:82-90.
25 Verschaev L, Slaets D, Van Gorp U, Maes A, Vankerkom L . In vitro and in vivo genetic effects of microwaves from mobile telephone frequencies in human and rat peripheral blood lymphocytes. In : Simunic D., ed., Proc. COST-244 Workshop, Bled (Slo), EC, DGXIII, J31, 1994. p. 74-83.
26 Vasquez MV, Clancy JC, Blackwell DB, Donner MD, Tice RT, Hook GH, et al. Genotoxicity of radio frequency fields generated from analog, TDMA, CDMA and PCS in human blood cells evaluated using the single cell gel (SCG) electrophoresis and the cytochalasin B micronucleus (CB-MN) assay. Environ Mol Mutagen 1999;33.(Suppl 30)66.
27 Zeni O, Chiavoni AS, Sannino A, Antolini A, Foroigo D, Bersani F, et al. Lack of genotoxic effects (Micronucleus Induction) in human lymphocytes exposed in vitro to 900 MHz electromagnetic fields. Radiat Res 2003;160:152-8.
28 McNamee JP, Bellier PV, Gajda GB, Lavallee BF, Marro L, Lemay E, et al. No evidence for genotoxic effects from 24h exposure of human leukocytes to 1.9 GHz Radio frequency fields. Radiat Res 2003;159:693-7.
29 Hook GJ, Zhang P, Lagroye I, Li L, Higashikubo R, Moros EG, et al. Measurement of DNA damage and apoptosis in Molt -4 cells after in vitro exposure to radio frequency radiation. Radiat Res 2004;161:193-200.

© 2006 Indian Journal of Human Genetics

http://www.ijhg.com/article.asp?issn=0971-6866;year=2005;volume=11;issue=2;spage=99;epage=104;aulast=Gandhi


From Mast Sanity/Mast Network

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Genetic damage in mobile phone users: some preliminary findings
http://www.buergerwelle.de/pdf/ijhg.pdf


Sincerely yours,
G.Gandhi

Dr. G.Gandhi
Reader and Head
Dept. of Human Genetics
Guru Nanak Dev University
Amritsar 143 005
India
Tel: (O):+91-183-2258802-09 Extn.3444
Fax (Univ.): +91-183-2258820
Email: jrgandhi@sancharnet.in

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Aufruf an den Präsidenten des BUNDESAMTES für STRAHLENSCHUTZ: Erkenntnisse im Vorfeld zur Studie ELEKTROSENSIBILITÄT – UNI MAINZ -

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http://freepage.twoday.net/stories/1947741/

Gaia's Last Stand: Climate Change is Everybody’s Business
http://freepage.twoday.net/stories/1928049/

ANTARCTIC GLACIERS SHOW EARTH'S CLIMATE SYSTEM CAPABLE OF RAPID SHIFTS
http://freepage.twoday.net/stories/1936931/

Ice-capped roof of world turns to desert
http://freepage.twoday.net/stories/1929708/

Say “No” to the project “Pascua-Lama”: Gold-mining Co. wants to destroy Glaciers
http://freepage.twoday.net/stories/1944808/

Clearcut Borneo to Build China
http://freepage.twoday.net/stories/1926190/

No bar code: a revolution against industrial agriculture is just down the road
http://freepage.twoday.net/stories/1932984/

1600 Sheep Die After Grazing in Genetically Engineered Cotton Fields
http://freepage.twoday.net/stories/1946277/

Save the BUFFALO and BISON from extinction at Yellowstone
http://freepage.twoday.net/stories/1944172/

Where's the Bird Flu Pandemic?
http://freepage.twoday.net/stories/1948791/

USA
http://omega.twoday.net/topics/Vote+USA+2004/

Iraq War
http://omega.twoday.net/topics/Irak-Krieg/

Is Iran next?
http://omega.twoday.net/topics/Is+Iran+next/

RFID
http://omega.twoday.net/topics/RFID/

EMF-Omega-News 13. May 2006
http://omega.twoday.net/stories/1957891/

EMF-Omega-News 13. May 2006

Cell Phone EMF Damage to Blood-Brain Barrier & DNA; Increased Cancer
http://omega.twoday.net/stories/1952955/

Expose to EMF linked to Neuro-Endocrine Stress Syndrome
http://omega.twoday.net/stories/1925254/

Mobile phone mast radiation
http://omega.twoday.net/stories/1924800/

Phone tower cancer fears
http://omega.twoday.net/stories/1953012/

Experts raise health concerns over WiFi
http://omega.twoday.net/stories/1926042/

Electronic smog: the curse of the mobile phone age
http://omega.twoday.net/stories/1926739/

Electrosensitivity health warning
http://omega.twoday.net/stories/1938203/

Mast Victims: Case History Files
http://omega.twoday.net/stories/1929876/

Brain tumour cases prompt uni building closure
http://omega.twoday.net/stories/1948232/

Union wants audit over tumours
http://omega.twoday.net/stories/1955776/

Hair Loss Microwaves Mobiles and Electric Smog Health warning
http://omega.twoday.net/stories/1941164/

Biological Effects of Low Frequency Electromagnetic Fields
http://omega.twoday.net/stories/1941227/

Electrical pollution causing depression
http://omega.twoday.net/stories/1943177/

Request for help: lobbying on 7th Framework Programme for Research
http://omega.twoday.net/stories/1933922/

Residents raise electromagnetic health questions
http://omega.twoday.net/stories/1927838/

Wildlife Vanished at Ouruhia
http://omega.twoday.net/stories/1927819/

Where Have All the Butterflies Gone?
http://omega.twoday.net/stories/1942600/

Telecom giant’s lavish hospitality dubbed ‘blatant corporate payola’
http://freepage.twoday.net/stories/1927771/

Outrage over phone mast close to school
http://freepage.twoday.net/stories/1938090/

Senator Brendan Kenneally urged Ballygunner GAA club to take down a mobile phone mast sited beside the St Mary's National School
http://freepage.twoday.net/stories/1943031/

FEARS OVER PLANS FOR PHONE MASTS
http://freepage.twoday.net/stories/1948602/

EURO-MP INTERVENES IN HAMPSHIRE PHONE MAST ROW
http://freepage.twoday.net/stories/1950779/

Parents furious over school phone mast
http://freepage.twoday.net/stories/1952906/

'We are not phone mast guinea pigs'
http://freepage.twoday.net/stories/1954556/

GAA club urged to remove mobile mast
http://freepage.twoday.net/stories/1954844/

Melbourne office closes floors after mobile phone cancer scare
http://omega.twoday.net/stories/1954930/

Heads’ concerns over phone masts
http://freepage.twoday.net/stories/1956672/

Town centre phone mast plan put on hold
http://freepage.twoday.net/stories/1956827/

Investigative report about the Israeli Cancer Society
http://freepage.twoday.net/stories/1954621/

Report from EHE '06 conference
http://freepage.twoday.net/stories/1941270/

4th Int. Workshop on EMFs: new deadline
http://freepage.twoday.net/stories/1941318/

Your mobile phone lets companies and the government know where you are, even when you're not making a call
http://freepage.twoday.net/stories/1957774/

Next-up News 9 May 2006
http://sharenews.twoday.net/stories/1941013/

Next-up News 10 May 2006
http://freepage.twoday.net/stories/1946621/

News from Mast Sanity
http://tinyurl.com/aotw3

Omega-News Collection 13. May 2006
http://omega.twoday.net/stories/1957898/

ICNIRP EMF exposure guidelines to be revised

http://freepage.twoday.net/stories/1822415/



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